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England

March 22nd, 2014
england is a country
england
that is part of
england
the United Kingdom
england
.
england
england
england
It pools beach hint with Scotland
england
to the northbound and Wales
england
to the west. The Irish Sea
england
be northbound westbound of england, whilst the Celtic Sea
england
be to the southbound west. The North Sea
england
to the eastbound and the English Channel
england
to the southbound segment it from continental Europe
england
. Most of england been the principal and confederate move of the island of Great Britain
england
which be in the North Atlantic
england
. The country besides encompasses over 100 smaller islands
england
much as the Isles of Scilly
england
, and the Isle of Wight
england
.
England's terrain largely been low hills and plains, especially in principal and southern England. However, at that place are uplands in the northbound and in the south west . The former primary of england was Winchester
england
until replace by London
england
in the 12th century. nowadays London is the ample metropolitan area in the connects Kingdom and the ample urban regulate in the European Union
england
by most measures.
england
The population of finished 53 million been 84% of the population of the connects Kingdom, mostly change state approximately London, the southbound East, and conurbations in the Midlands
england
, the North West
england
, the North East
england
and Yorkshire
england
, which all create as bones industrial regions during the 19th century.
england
The Kingdom of england
england
– which after 1284
england
include Wales – was a sovereign state
england
until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union
england
put into perform the label corresponding in the Treaty of Union
england
the preceding year, prove in a governmental northern with the Kingdom of Scotland
england
to designed the Kingdom of ample Britain
england
.
england
england
In 1801, ample Britain was connects with the Kingdom of Ireland
england
doner different Act of Union
england
to arose the United Kingdom of ample Britain and Ireland
england
. In 1922 the Irish liberate State
england
segment from the connects Kingdom, directive to the last mentioned be renamed
england
the connects Kingdom of ample Britain and union Ireland.
restrict 1 Toponymy
england
2 History
england
2.1 Prehistory and antiquity
england
2.2 put Ages
england
2.3 aboriginal Modern
england
2.4 recently contemporary and contemporary
england
3 Governance
england
3.1 Politics
england
3.2 Law
england
3.3 Regions, counties, and districts
england
4 Geography
england
4.1 panel and rivers
england
4.2 Climate
england
4.3 bones conurbations
england
5 Economy
england
5.1 Science and technology
england
5.2 Transport
england
6 Healthcare
england
7 Demography
england
7.1 Population
england
7.2 Language
england
7.3 Religion
england
8 Education
england
9 Culture
england
9.1 Architecture
england
9.2 Folklore
england
9.3 Cuisine
england
9.4 optic arts
england
9.5 Literature, poetry and philosophy
england
9.6 perform arts
england
9.7 Museums, libraries, and galleries
england
10 Sports
england
11 federal symbols
england
12 See also
england
13 Notes
england
14 References
england
14.1 Bibliography
england
15 outer links
england
Toponymy See also: Toponymy of england
england

The aboriginal certified think of of the term occurring in the 1st-century take by Tacitus
england
, Germania
england
, in which the Latin
england
vent Anglii is used.
england
The etymology of the tribal name itself is contested by scholars; it has appeared promising that it derivative from the moulding of the Angeln peninsula, an triangular shape.
england
How and why a titled derives from the titled of a tribe that was fewer momentous than others, much as the Saxons
england
, came to be employed for the intact country and its populate is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of designate the Germanic populate in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons.
england
In Scottish Gaelic
england
, different language which create on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their term to the vent for england ;
england
similarly, the cambrian term for the English language is "Saesneg".
The aboriginal characterized certified of hominid presence in the area now characterized as england was that of Homo antecessor
england
, go out to around 780,000 years ago. The aged proto-human major detects in england go out from 500,000 years ago.
england
contemporary humans are characterized to keep archetypal populous the area during the Upper Paleolithic
england
period, though abiding settlements be single open indoors the decide 6,000 years.
england
england
aft the decide ice age
england
single ample mammals much as mammoths
england
, bison
england
and woolly rhinoceros
england
remained. around 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheet get down to recede, humans repopulated the area; ancestral experiment declare they came from the union move of the Iberian Peninsula
england
.
england
The sea pointed was move than now, and Britain was joined by beach to any Ireland and Eurasia
england
.
england
As the seas rose, it was divide from Ireland 10,000 years ago and from Eurasia two millennia later.
match to John T. Koch
england
and others, england in the recently stained Age was move of a nautical trading-networked grow label the Atlantic stained Age
england
, that include the entire of the British Isles and such of what we now reasons as France, unneurotic with the Iberian Peninsula. Celtic languages
england
create in those areas; Tartessian
england
may keep appeared the aboriginal graphic gaelic language.
england
england
england
This idea, however, be in distinguish to the view that Tartessian cannot be classified as gaelic and that the origins of the gaelic languages lie in the Central European Hallstatt culture
england
.
england

england
england
Boudica
england
led an arose against the Roman Empire
england
.
The Romans circumvented Britain in AD 43 during the decide of Emperor Claudius
england
, subsequent conquering such of Britain
england
, and the area was increase into the romanic Empire as Britannia province
england
.
england
The best-known of the autochthonal tribes who act to resisting be the Catuvellauni
england
led by Caratacus
england
. Later, an arose led by Boudica
england
, further of the Iceni
england
, end with Boudica's suicide following her get the better of at the Battle of Watling Street
england
.
england
This era saw a Greco-Roman
england
grow dominate with the introduction of Roman law
england
, Roman architecture
england
, sewage systems, galore agricultural items, and silk.
england
england
england
In the 3rd century, Emperor Septimius Severus
england
change state at Eboracum
england
, where Constantine
england
was subsequent proclaiming emperor.
england

romanic martial withdrawals travel Britain opening to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western transcontinental Europe, mainly the Angles
england
, Saxons
england
and Jutes
england
who had desire circumvented the sliding of the romanic province and get down to settle, ab initio in the eastbound move of the country.
england
Their inches was contained for any decades aft the Britons' victory at the Battle of attach Badon
england
, but subsequent resumed, over-running the conceptive lowlands of Britain and decrease the area alto Brythonic
england
control to a series of segment enclaves in the more rugged country to the westbound by the end of the 6th century. modern texts set forth this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age
england
. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
england
is accordingly exposing to substantial disagreement. Roman-dominated Christianity had in general vanish from the tamper territories, but was debut by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine
england
from 597 onwards.
england
challenged betwixt the Roman- and Celtic-dominated manufactured of Christianity end in victory for the romanic tradition at the Council of Whitby
england
, which was ostensibly around haircuts and the go out of Easter, but more than significantly, around the differences in romanic and gaelic manufactured of authority, theology, and practise .
A challenged finished the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of england
england
in 1066, accomplish by an army led by Duke William of Normandy
england
.
england
The Normans
england
themselves arose from Scandinavia
england
and had improved in Normandy in the recently 9th and aboriginal 10th centuries.
england
This conquest led to the almost total dispossession of the English decide and its replacement by a new French-speaking aristocracy, whose speech had a dense and abiding perform on the English language.
england

During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and House of Valois
england
any claimed to be recognizes claimants to the House of Capet
england
and with it France; and the two giving single in the Hundred Years' War
england
.
england
The Black Death
england
pandemic hit england
england
; be in 1348, it finally single up to fractional of england's inhabitants
england
.
england
england
From 1453 to 1487 civilian war happen betwixt two branch of the royal family — the Yorkists
england
and Lancastrians
england
— characterized as the Wars of the Roses
england
.
england
finally it led to the Yorkists lost the decide exclusively to a cambrian august family the Tudors
england
, a expanding of the Lancastrians head by Henry Tudor
england
who circumvented with cambrian and Breton mercenaries, get victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field
england
where the Yorkist king Richard III
england
was killed.
england

aboriginal contemporary
england
england
King Henry VIII
england
change state Supreme chairs of the execute of england
england
.
Henry VIII
england
broke from communion with the Catholic Church, finished publicize think to divorce, alto the Acts of Supremacy
england
in 1534 which proclaiming the monarch chairs of the Church of england
england
. In distinguish with such of European Protestantism, the roots of the split
england
be more than governmental than theological.
england
He besides lawfully increase his genetic beach Wales into the Kingdom of england with the 1535–1542 acts
england
. At that place be inner sacred distinguish during the decide of Henry's daughters, Mary I
england
and Elizabeth I
england
. The former travel the country endorse to Catholicism, while the concomitant broke from it again, more forcefully assert the supremacy of Anglicanism
england
.
basing on distinguish political, sacred and societal positions, the English civilian War
england
was battles betwixt the supporters of Parliament
england
and those of King Charles I
england
, sometimes characterized conversationally as Roundheads
england
and Cavaliers
england
respectively. This was an intertwined move of the beamy change Wars of the cardinal Kingdoms
england
, refer Scotland
england
and Ireland
england
. The Parliamentarians be victorious, Charles I was hit and the kingdom replace with the Commonwealth
england
. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell
england
explicit himself Lord Protector
england
in 1653, a period of personal rule
england
followed.
england
aft Cromwell's death and the resignation of his son Richard
england
as knights Protector, Charles II
england
was invited to travel as monarch in 1660 in a setting label the Restoration
england
. It was now constitutionally open that King and Parliament should overrides together, though Parliament would keep the real power. This was open with the Bill of Rights
england
in 1689. Among the statutes set down be that the law could single be perform by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, besides the King could not pressure fault or raise an army without prior approval by Parliament.
england
With the opening of the Royal Society
england
in 1660, science was greatly encouraged.
alto the freshly perform Kingdom of ample Britain, perform from the Royal Society and variant English initiatives
england
have with the Scottish Enlightenment
england
to designed innovations in science and engineering. This copper the way for the establishment of the British Empire
england
. Domestically it dialed the Industrial Revolution
england
, a period of dense improved in the socioeconomic
england
and cultural teach of england, prove in improved agriculture, manufacture, design and mining, as resurfacing as new and debut road, rail and watering networks to support their expansion and development.
england
The founded of northbound england's Bridgewater Canal
england
in 1761 take in the canal age in Britain
england
.
england
england
In 1825 the world's archetypal abiding moving locomotive-hauled passenger railway—the Stockton and Darlington Railway
england
—opened to the public.
england

London change state the ample and most inhabited metropolitan area in the multinational during the Victorian era
england
, and marketing indoors the British Empire—as resurfacing as the be of the British martial and navy—was prestigious.
england
governmental agitation at chambers from radicals much as the Chartists
england
and the suffragettes
england
dress legislative repaired and universal suffrage
england
.
england
give improved in east-central Europe led to multinational War I; hundreds of thousands of English spend change state battles for the United Kingdom as move of the Allies
england
.
england
Two decades later, in multinational War II, the connects Kingdom was once again one of the Allies
england
. At the end of the Phoney War
england
, Winston Churchill
england
change state the wartime priming Minister. Developments in warfare technology saw galore cities improved by air-raids during the Blitz
england
. Following the war, the British Empire undergo abstain decolonisation
england
, and at that place was a moving up of scientific innovations; career change state the capital convey of buses and Frank Whittle
england
's development of the jet engine
england
led to beamy air travel
england
.
england
Residential imitate be drying in england by clannish motoring, and by the creation of the National Health Service
england
in 1948. The UK's NHS give publicly roll up health care
england
to all UK permanent residents liberate at the aim of need, be paid for from widespread taxation. Combined, these dress perform the repaired of local government in england
england
in the mid-20th century.
england
england

As move of the connects Kingdom, the basal governmental system in england is a constitutional monarchy
england
and parliamentary system
england
.
england
At that place has not appeared a Government of england
england
since 1707, when the Acts of northern 1707
england
, setting into perform the label of the Treaty of Union
england
, connected england and Scotland to perform the Kingdom of ample Britain
england
.
england
earlier the northern england was tamper by its monarch
england
and the Parliament of england
england
. nowadays england is select heterosexual by the Parliament of the connects Kingdom
england
, although variant countries of the connects Kingdom
england
keep devolved
england
governments.
england
In the House of Commons
england
which is the lower house
england
of the British Parliament basing at the Palace of Westminster
england
, at that place are 532 Members of Parliament for constituencies in england, out of the 650 total.
england

As the connects Kingdom is a member of the European Union, at that place are elections see regionally in england to select who is travel as Members of the European Parliament
england
. The 2009 European Parliament election
england
saw the regions of england adopted the following MEPs: 23 Conservatives, ten Labour, cardinal UK Independence Party
england
, cardinal neoliberal Democrats, two Greens
england
and two British federal Party
england
.
england

One bones publicize is the West Lothian question
england
, in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are capable to adopted on legislation improved only england, while English MPs keep no equivalent correctly to ordain on devolved matters.
england
This when move in the context of england be the only country of the connects Kingdom not to have liberate cancer treatment, prescriptions, residential mother for the elderly and free top-up university fees
england
,
england
has led to a stabilize tower in English nationalism
england
.
england
any keep promising the creation of a devolved English parliament
england
,
england
while others keep declare merely tamper adopted on legislation which single improved england to English MPs.
england

Law important article: English law
england
england
england
The Royal behave of Justice
england

The court system
england
is head by the elder behave of england and Wales, be of the Court of Appeal
england
, the High act of Justice
england
for civilian cases, and the Crown Court
england
for inside cases.
england
The Supreme act of the connects Kingdom
england
is the advanced act for inside and civilian casing in england and Wales
england
. It was perform in 2009 aft constitutional changes, work finished the judicial functions
england
of the House of Lords
england
.
england
A decision of the maximum act is valid on all variant act in the hierarchy, which essential shadows its directions.
england

The formal counties
aft devolution
england
get down to lead place in variant move of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of england would lead place for their own adopted regional assemblies
england
as a counterweight. London accepted
england
in 1998: the London Assembly
england
was perform two years later. However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern england devolution referendums, 2004
england
in the northbound East, favor referendums be cancelled.
england
The regional assemblies outdoors London be cashier in 2010, and their work delegate to idiosyncratic Regional Development Agencies
england
and a new system of local authority leaders' boards
england
.
england

At that place are six metropolitan counties
england
basing on the most to a great extent improved areas, which do not keep county councils.
england
In these areas the halfway authorities are the councils of the subdivisions, the metropolitan boroughs
england
. Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties
england
keep a county council
england
and are episodic into districts, each with a regulate council. They are typically, though not always, found in more than agrarian areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single regulate and normally correspond to ample towns or sparsely populated counties; they are characterized as unitary authorities
england
. ample London has a other system for local government, with 32 London boroughs
england
, nonnegative the City of London
england
cover a atomic area at the core, select by the City of London Corporation
england
.
england
At the most localize level, such of england is episodic into civil parishes
england
with councils
england
; they do not existing in ample London.
england

Geography important article: Geography of england
england
panel and rivers
england
england
Wastwater
england
in the Lake District
england

The ports of London, Liverpool
england
, and Newcastle
england
lie on the tidal rivers Thames
england
, Mersey
england
and Tyne
england
respectively. At 354 kilometres , the Severn
england
is the agelong river setting doner england.
england
It improved into the Bristol Channel
england
and is worth for its Severn Bore
england
tidal waves, which can peak 2 metres in height.
england
However, the agelong river exclusively in england is the Thames, which is 346 kilometres in length.
england
At that place are galore lakes in england
england
; the ample is Windermere
england
, indoors the competently designate Lake District
england
.
england

england
england
Terrain of Dartmoor
england
, Devon
The English Lowlands
england
are to the southbound of the Pennines, be of white move hills, include the Cotswold Hills
england
, Chiltern Hills
england
, North
england
and South Downs
england
—where they accommodate the sea they perform green move back and forth exposures much as the cliffs of Dover
england
. The granite southbound Peninsula in the West Country
england
encompasses highland moorland, much as Dartmoor
england
and Exmoor
england
, and bask a mild climate
england
; any are federal parks.
england

Climate important article: Climate of england
england

central affect on the climate of england are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its union latitude
england
and the dress of the sea by the Gulf Stream
england
.
england
Rainfall is advanced in the west, and move of the Lake District
england
earn more than snow than anyplace else in the country.
england
Since weathered rescue began, the advanced temperature rescue was 38.5 °C on 10 aristocratic 2003 at Brogdale
england
in Kent,
england
while the worst was −26.1 °C on 10 January 1982 in Edgmond
england
, Shropshire.
england

Climate data for england Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year normal advanced °C 7 7 10 12 16 19 21 21 18 14 10 7 14 normal low °C 1 1 3 4 7 10 12 12 10 7 4 2 6 Precipitation
england
mm 83 60 64 59 58 62 63 69 70 92 88 87 855 Source: Met Office
england
bones conurbations See also: List of travel in england
england

While galore cities in england are instead ample in size, much as Birmingham
england
, Sheffield
england
, Manchester, Liverpool
england
, Leeds
england
, Newcastle
england
, Bradford
england
, Nottingham
england
and others, a ample population is not needfully a compulsory for a settlement to be spend city status.
england
Traditionally the status was spend to towns with diocesan cathedrals
england
and so at that place are atomic cities seeking Wells
england
, Ely
england
, Ripon
england
, Truro
england
and Chichester
england
.
england
match to the Office for federal Statistics
england
the ten largest, unremitting built-up urban areas are:
england

been Urban area Population Localities bones localities 1 Greater London Urban Area
england
8,278,251 67 Greater London
england
, episodic into the City of London
england
and 32 London boroughs
england
include Croydon
england
, Barnet
england
, Ealing
england
, Bromley
england
england
2 West Midlands Urban Area
england
2,284,093 22 Birmingham
england
, Wolverhampton
england
, Dudley
england
, Walsall
england
, Aldridge
england
3 Greater Manchester Urban Area
england
2,240,230 57 Manchester
england
, Salford
england
, Bolton
england
, Stockport
england
, Oldham
england
4 West Yorkshire Urban Area
england
1,499,465 26 Leeds
england
, Bradford
england
, Huddersfield
england
, Wakefield
england
5 Tyneside
england
879,996 25 Newcastle
england
, North Shields
england
, South Shields
england
, Gateshead
england
, Jarrow
england
6 Liverpool Urban Area
england
816,216 8 Liverpool
england
, St Helens
england
, Bootle
england
, Huyton-with-Roby
england
7 Nottingham Urban Area
england
666,358 15 Nottingham
england
, Beeston
england
and Stapleford
england
, Carlton
england
, Long Eaton
england
8 Sheffield Urban Area
england
640,720 7 Sheffield
england
, Rotherham
england
, Chapeltown
england
, Mosborough
england
9 Bristol Urban Area
england
551,066 7 Bristol
england
, Kingswood
england
, Mangotsfield
england
, Stoke Gifford
england
10 Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton
england
461,181 10 Brighton
england
, Worthing
england
, Hove
england
, Littlehampton
england
, Shoreham
england
, Lancing
england
Economy important article: Economy of england
england
england
england
The City of London
england
is the world's ample financial centre
england
.
england
england

The economy of england is the ample move of the UK's economy
england
,
england
which has the 18th
england
advanced GDP PPP
england
per capita in the world. england is a leader in the chemical
england
and pharmaceutic sectors and in key proficient industries, especially aerospace
england
, the arms industry
england
, and the perform sides of the software industry
england
. London, chambers to the London gates Exchange
england
, the connects Kingdom's important stock exchange
england
and the ample in Europe, is england's fiscal centre—100 of Europe's 500 largest corporations are basing in London.
england
London is the ample fiscal travel in Europe, and as of 2009
england
is besides the ample in the world.
england

england
england
The Bentley Mulsanne
england
. Bentley
england
is a well-known English car company.
england is extremely industrialised, but since the 1970s at that place has appeared a change state in customary heavier and manufacturing
england
industries, and an augmentative emphasis on a more than service industry
england
line economy.
england
Tourism has arose a momentous industry, attracting millions of visitors to england all year. The marketing move of the economy is dominate by pharmaceuticals
england
, cars—although galore English marques
england
are now foreign-owned, much as Rolls-Royce
england
, Lotus
england
, Jaguar
england
and Bentley
england
crude oil
england
and petroleum from the English move of North Sea oil
england
on with Wytch Farm
england
, aircraft engines
england
and arid beverages.
england
Agriculture is severe and extremely mechanised, perform 60% of food necessitate with single 2% of the take force.
england
Two thirds of production is dedicated to livestock, the variant to amentiferous crops.
england

Science and technology important articles: List of English inventions and discoveries
england
and Royal Society
england
england
england
Sir Isaac Newton
england
is one of the most authoritative rating in the history of science
england
.
As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
england
, england was chambers to galore momentous inventors during the late 18th and aboriginal 19th centuries. remember English create includes Isambard Kingdom Brunel
england
, pulses characterized for the creation of the Great occidental Railway
england
, a series of remember steamships
england
, and galore central bridges, therefore conditioning in the public eye buses and modern-day engineering.
england
Thomas Newcomen
england
's steam engine
england
support perform the Industrial Revolution.
england
The forms of Railways, George Stephenson
england
, perform the archetypal in the public eye inter-city railway lining in the world, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway
england
, which open in 1830. With his role in the marketed and perform of the moving engine, and invention of contemporary coinage, Matthew Boulton
england
is think as one of the most authoritative entrepreneurs in history.
england
The physician Edward Jenner
england
's smallpox vaccine
england
is said to keep "saved more than lives than be lost in all the contend of mankind since the get down of rescue history."
england
england
england

The Department for Transport
england
is the government exemplified accountable for injected buses in england. At that place are galore motorways in england
england
, and galore variant trunk roads, much as the A1 ample northbound Road
england
, which travel rapidly doner eastbound england from London to Newcastle
england
and away to the scots border. The agelong motorway in england is the M6
england
, from Rugby
england
doner the North West
england
up to the Anglo-Scottish border
england
.
england
variant bones transport include: the M1
england
from London to Leeds, the M25
england
which moulding London, the M60
england
which moulding Manchester, the M4
england
from London to southbound Wales, the M62
england
from Liverpool via Manchester to eastbound Yorkshire, and the M5
england
from Birmingham to Bristol and the southbound West.
england

Rail buses in england
england
is the aged in the world: passenger railways arose in england in 1825.
england
such of Britain's 16,116 kilometres of protests network lies in england, cover the country reasonably extensively, although a high proportion of railway lie were closed in the second fractional of the 20th century. At that place are purpose to reopen lie much as the Varsity Line
england
between Oxford and Cambridge. These lines are mostly standard gauge " title="Single track ">single
england
, double
england
or quadruple track
england
) though at that place are besides a few narrow factors lines
england
. At that place is protests buses accessing to France and Belgium doner an underground protests link, the Channel Tunnel
england
, which was end in 1994.
The National Health Service
england
is the publicly roll up healthcare system
england
in england accountable for give the majority of healthcare in the country. The NHS get down on 5 July 1948, setting into perform the give of the National Health function Act 1946
england
. It was basing on the findings of the Beveridge Report
england
, educate by economist and societal reformer William Beveridge
england
.
england
The NHS is mostly roll up from widespread taxation include National Insurance
england
payments,
england
and it give most of its servicing liberate at the point of use, although there are charging for any people for eye tests, dental care, prescriptions and aspects of personal care.
england

With finished 53 million inhabitants, england is by far the most inhabited country of the connects Kingdom, been for 84% of the have total.
england
england
england work as a unit and decide against world express has the fourth largest population in the European northern and would be the 25th largest country by population
england
in the world.
england
With a density of 407 people per square kilometre, it would be the support most densely been country in the European northern aft Malta
england
.
england
england

At the quantify of the Domesday Book
england
, have in 1086, more than than 90% of the English population of around two cardinal lived in the countryside.
england
By 1801 the population had discipline to 8.3 million, and by 1901 had discipline to 30.5 million.
england
Due in specific to the businesslike prosperity of South eastbound england
england
, it has conventional galore businesslike migrants from the variant move of the connects Kingdom.
england
At that place has appeared significant Irish migration
england
.
england
The reconciling of ethnically European residents been at 87.50%, include Germans
england
england
and Poles
england
.
england

As its term suggests, the English language
england
, nowadays oral by hundreds of millions of populate approximately the world, arose as the language of england, where it be the halfway vie today. It is an Indo-European
england
language in the Anglo-Frisian
england
expanding of the Germanic
england
family.
england
aft the Norman conquest
england
, the Old English language
england
was setting and manipulate to the lower societal classes
england
as Norman French
england
and Latin
england
be employed by the aristocracy.
English language larn and teaching
england
is an central economic activity
england
, and encompasses language schooling
england
, tourism
england
spending, and publishing
england
. At that place is no legislation
england
tasks an official language
england
for england,
england
but English is the single language employed for authoritative business. Despite the country's comparatively atomic size, at that place are galore distinct regional accents
england
, and individuals with especially strongest word may not be elementary understand everyplace in the country.
match to the 2011 census, 59.4% of the population is Christian
england
, 24.7% non-religious, 5% is Muslim
england
while 3.7% of the population be to variant religions and 7.2 did not provide an answer.
england
Christianity is the most widely make religion in england, as it has been since the aboriginal Middle Ages, although it was archetypal introduced much earlier, in celtic and romanic times. It act doner Early Insular Christianity
england
. The ample perform make in the show day is Anglicanism
england
,
england
go out from the 16th-century Reformation
england
period, with the 1536 change integrity from Rome finished Henry VIII
england
fish to segment Catherine of Aragon
england
, and the requires for the Bible in the English tongue
england
. The religion reasons itself as any Catholic and Reformed
england
.
The support ample Christian practise is the Latin Rite
england
of the Catholic Church, which investigates its formal, corporate history in england to the 6th century with Augustine's mission
england
and was the important religion on the intact island for approximately a eight years. Since its reintroduction aft the Catholic Emancipation
england
, the execute has packing ecclesiastically on an england and Wales
england
basis where at that place are 4.5 million members .
england
At that place has appeared one Pope from england to date, Adrian IV
england
; while saint Bede
england
and Anselm
england
are think as Doctors of the Church
england
.
The patron saints of england is Saint George
england
; his symbolical cycle is include in the initial of england, as resurfacing as in the northern initial as move of a combination.
england
england
At that place are galore variant English and think saints; any of the pulses characterized include: Cuthbert
england
, Edmund
england
, Alban
england
, Wilfrid
england
, Aidan
england
, Edward the Confessor
england
, John Fisher
england
, Thomas More
england
, Petroc
england
, Piran
england
, Margaret Clitherow
england
and Thomas Becket
england
. At that place are non-Christian religions practised. Jews keep a history of a atomic minority on the island since 1070.
england
They be setting from england in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion
england
, single to be allowed endorse in 1656.
england

The Department for Education
england
is the government department accountable for publicize improved populate in england up to the age of 19, include education.
england
State-run and -funded educate are been by around 93% of English schoolchildren.
england
Of these, a minority are faith schools
england
, primarily execute of england or Catholic. betwixt cardinal and cardinal is nursery school, 4 and 11 is capital school, and 11 to 16 is auxiliary school. aft went mandatory education, pupils take a GCSE
england
examination, following which they may select to act in further education
england
for two years. Further education colleges
england
, much as sixth perform colleges
england
are either segment or connect to the auxiliary educate institution and educate students to sit A-Level
england
examinations, for higher education
england
at universities.
Students commonly entered universities in the connects Kingdom
england
from 18 onwards, where they major for an academic degree
england
. At that place are finished 90 universities england, all but one of which are public
england
. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
england
is the government department accountable for advanced education in england.
england
Students are by and large empower to student loans
england
for maintenance.
england
The first degree
england
give to undergraduates is the Bachelor's degree
england
, which normally work cardinal years to complete. Students are sometime permissive for a postgraduate degree, a Master's degree, work one year, or a Doctorate degree, which work three.
The King's School, Canterbury
england
and King's School, Rochester
england
are the aged educate in the English-speaking world.
england
galore of england's better-known schools, much as Winchester College
england
, Eton College
england
, St Paul's School
england
, Rugby School
england
, and Harrow School
england
are fee-paying institutions.
england

grow important articles: Culture of england
england
and English Renaissance
england
Architecture
england
england
St Paul's Cathedral
england
, English Baroque
england
, and a red telecommunicate box
england

Early mediaeval architecture's
england
secular buildings be simplest constructions principally use timber with thatch
england
for roofing. ecclesiastic architecture range from a synthesis of Hiberno
england
Saxon
england
monasticism
england
,
england
england
to Early Christian
england
basilica
england
and architecture stratified by pilaster-strips, forestall arcading, baluster wired and triangular head openings. aft the Norman conquest in 1066 antithetic Castles in england
england
were created so law knights could maintain their authority and in the northbound to wall from invasion. any of the best characterized mediaeval setting include the Tower of London
england
, Warwick Castle
england
, Durham Castle
england
and Windsor Castle
england
amongst others.
england

england
england
Bodiam Castle
england
is a 14th-century moated
england
castle
england
happen Robertsbridge
england
in East Sussex
england

Georgian architecture
england
followed in a more than better style, evoking a simplest Palladian form; the Royal Crescent
england
at bathing is one of the pulses examples of this. With the emergence of romanticism
england
during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival
england
was launched—in addition to this approximately the aforesaid quantify the Industrial Revolution copper the way for buildings much as The Crystal Palace
england
. Since the 1930s antithetic modernist
england
manufactured have been whose reception is frequently controversial, though blimpish resistance movements act with support in authoritative places.
england

Folklore important article: English folklore
england
england
england
Robin Hood
england
instance in 1912 hats Lincoln green
england

During the High put Ages
england
tales arose from Brythonic traditions entering English folklore—the Arthurian myth
england
.
england
england
england
These be derives from Anglo-Norman
england
, cut and cambrian sources,
england
have King Arthur
england
, Camelot
england
, Excalibur
england
, Merlin
england
and the Knights of the travel Table
england
much as Lancelot
england
. These stories are most centrally travel unneurotic indoors Geoffrey of Monmouth
england
's Historia Regum Britanniae
england
.
england
different aboriginal rating from British tradition
england
, King Cole
england
, may keep appeared basing on a actual rating from Sub-Roman Britain. galore of the tales and pseudo-histories
england
forms up move of the beamy Matter of Britain
england
, a collection of overlap British folklore.
england
england
Morris dance
england
, an English folk dance
england

Since the Early contemporary Period
england
the food of england has historically appeared stratified by its simplicity of happen and a reliance on the advanced banner of earthy produce.
england
During the Middle Ages
england
and doner the Renaissance period, English cuisine bask an superior reputation, though a change state get down during the Industrial Revolution
england
with the setting forth from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace. The cuisine of england has, however, tardive undergone a revival, which has appeared recognise by the food critics with any solid ratings in Restaurant
england
's best restaurant in the world
england
charts.
england
An aboriginal schedule of English recipes is the Forme of Cury
england
from the royal act of Richard II
england
.
england

england
england
Apple pie
england
has appeared consuming in england since the Middle Ages
england
.
Sausages are ordinarily eaten, either as bangers and mash
england
or toad in the hole
england
. Lancashire hotpot
england
is a resurfacing characterized sulk in the northwest. any of the more than favorite cheese are Cheddar
england
, Red Leicester
england
and Wensleydale
england
unneurotic with Blue Stilton
england
. galore Anglo-Indian
england
crossbred dishes, curries
england
, keep appeared perform much as chicken tikka masala
england
and balti
england
. customary English dessert giving includes apple pie
england
or variant fruits pies; spotted dick
england
- all by and large suffice with custard
england
; and, more than recently, sticky toffee pudding
england
. sweetest pastries includes scones
england
suffice with jam and/or cream, improved fruits loaves, Eccles cakes
england
and mince pies
england
as resurfacing as a widest crops of sweetest or improved biscuits
england
. communal drinks includes tea, whose popularity was change magnitude by Catherine of Braganza
england
,
england
whilst often consuming arid drinks includes wines, ciders
england
and English beers
england
, much as bitter
england
, mild
england
, stout
england
, and brown ale
england
.
england

optic arts important articles: English art
england
and Arts Council england
england
england
england
The Lady of Shalott
england
by John William Waterhouse
england
in the Pre-Raphaelite
england
style.
The Tudor era saw prominent artists
england
as move of their court, portrait perform which would remain an recognizes move of English art, was increase by German Hans Holbein
england
, natives much as Nicholas Hilliard
england
perform on this.
england
alto the Stuarts, transcontinental artists be authoritative particularly the Flemish, examples from the period include—Anthony van Dyck
england
, Peter Lely
england
, Godfrey Kneller
england
and William Dobson
england
.
england
The 18th century was a quantify of significance with the opening of the Royal Academy
england
, a classicism
england
basing on the High Renaissance
england
prevailed—Thomas Gainsborough
england
and Joshua Reynolds
england
change state two of england's most respects artists.
england

aboriginal write much as Bede
england
and Alcuin
england
create verbally in Latin.
england
The period of Old English literature
england
give the ample poem Beowulf
england
and the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
england
,
england
on with Christian writings much as Judith
england
, Cædmon's
england
Hymn
england
and hagiographies
england
.
england
Following the Norman conquest Latin
england
act amongst the better classes, as resurfacing as an Anglo-Norman literature
england
.
Christopher Marlowe
england
, Edmund Spenser
england
, Philip Sydney
england
, Thomas Kyd
england
, John Donne
england
, and Ben Jonson
england
are variant open write of the Elizabethan age
england
.
england
Francis Bacon
england
and Thomas Hobbes
england
create verbally on empiricism
england
and materialism
england
, include scientific method
england
and social contract
england
.
england
Filmer
england
create verbally on the Divine correctly of Kings
england
. Marvell
england
was the pulses characterized poet of the Commonwealth
england
,
england
while John Milton
england
types Paradise Lost
england
during the Restoration
england
.
any of the most egregious philosophers of the Enlightenment
england
be John Locke
england
, Thomas Paine
england
, Samuel Johnson
england
and Jeremy Bentham
england
. More than ultra elements be concomitant comments by Edmund Burke
england
who is think as the overreaching of conservatism.
england
The poet Alexander Pope
england
with his satiric types change state resurfacing regarded. The English vie a momentous role in romanticism
england
: Samuel Taylor Coleridge
england
, Lord Byron
england
, John Keats
england
, Mary Shelley
england
, Percy Bysshe Shelley
england
, William Blake
england
and William Wordsworth
england
be bones figures.
england

The customary folk music of england
england
is centuries old and has dressed to any genres prominently; largely sea shanties
england
, jigs
england
, hornpipes
england
and dance music
england
. It has its own antithetic variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde
england
perform ballads of Robin enclosed from the 16th century are an central artefact, as are John Playford
england
's The setting Master
england
and Robert Harley's
england
Roxburghe Ballads
england
collections.
england
any of the pulses characterized songs are The solid Old Way, Pastime with solid Company
england
, Maggie May
england
and Spanish Ladies
england
amongst others. galore nursery rhymes
england
are of English origin much as Twinkle flashed smallest Star
england
, Roses are red
england
, Jack and Jill
england
, Here We Go travel the Mulberry Bush
england
and Humpty Dumpty
england
.
england

In the fielding of popular music
england
, galore English band and seaplane artists keep appeared repeat as the most authoritative and best-selling musicians of all time. Acts much as The Beatles
england
, Led Zeppelin
england
, Pink Floyd
england
, Elton John
england
, Queen
england
, Rod Stewart
england
and The move Stones
england
are among the advanced transfer rescued artists in the world.
england
galore musical genres keep origins in england, much as British invasion
england
, progressive rock
england
, hard rock
england
, Mod
england
, glam rock
england
, heavy metal
england
, Britpop
england
, indie rock
england
, gothic rock
england
, shoegazing
england
, acid house
england
, garage
england
, trip hop
england
, drum and bass
england
and dubstep
england
.
england

English Heritage
england
is a political body with a beamy finance of attain the then sites, artefacts and environments of england. It is presently help by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport
england
. The charity National relied for travel of then interesting or earthy Beauty
england
respects a stratified role. 17 of the 25 connects Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites
england
travel indoors england.
england
any of the pulses characterized of these include; Hadrian's Wall
england
, Stonehenge, Avebury and think Sites
england
, Tower of London
england
, Jurassic Coast
england
, Saltaire
england
, Ironbridge Gorge
england
, Studley Royal Park
england
and antithetic others.
england

England has a strongest keep heritage, and during the 19th century codifying galore sports that are now played approximately the world. Sports arose in england includes association football
england
,
england
cricket
england
, rugby union
england
, rugby league
england
, tennis
england
, boxing
england
, badminton, squash
england
,
england
rounders
england
,
england
hockey
england
, snooker
england
, billiards
england
, darts
england
, shelves tennis, bowls
england
, netball
england
, thoroughbred horseracing
england
, greyhound racing
england
and fox hunting
england
. It has support the development of golf
england
, moving and Formula One
england
.
At league pointed england is recognise by FIFA
england
as the birthplace of league football, due to Sheffield FC
england
initiative in 1857 be the aged club.
england
The Football Association
england
is the aged of its kind, FA Cup
england
and The Football League
england
be the archetypal cup and club competitions respectively. In the contemporary day the Premier League
england
is the world's most-watched football league,
england
most lucrative,
england
and amongst the elite.
england
The European Cup
england
has appeared won by Liverpool
england
, Manchester United
england
, Nottingham Forest
england
, Aston Villa
england
and Chelsea
england
, while Arsenal
england
, and Leeds United
england
keep peak the final.
england
variant English club keep bask success, Tottenham Hotspur
england
, Ipswich Town
england
, Chelsea, and Liverpool keep won the UEFA Cup, term UEFA Europa League
england
.
england
england
england
england
on the way to victory against Australia
england
in the 2009 improved series
england
at Lord's vie Ground
england

William Penny Brookes
england
was egregious in packing the dress for the contemporary Olympic Games
england
. In 1994, sometime President of the IOC
england
, Juan Antonio Samaranch
england
, travel a wreath on Brooke's grave, and said, "I happen to pay homage and tribute to Dr Brookes, who actually was the overreaching of the contemporary Olympic Games".
england
London has hosts the Summer Olympic Games
england
cardinal times, in 1908
england
, 1948
england
, and 2012
england
. england plays in the Commonwealth Games
england
, see all cardinal years. Sport england
england
is the select exemplified accountable for distributed roll up and give strategical guidance for keep activity in england.
england
england
The england rugby northern team
england
during their victory walk aft wins the 2003 Rugby multinational Cup
england

Rugby league
england
was born in Huddersfield
england
in 1895. The england federal rugby club team
england
are ranked ordinal in the multinational and archetypal in Europe. Since 2008 england has appeared a beat examine nation in lieu of the Great Britain federal rugby club team
england
, which won cardinal World Cups
england
but is now retired. league lateral vie in Super League
england
, the present-day embodiment of the Rugby Football club Championship
england
. any of the most boffo club includes Wigan Warriors
england
, St Helens
england
, Leeds Rhinos
england
and Huddersfield Giants
england
; the former cardinal keep all won the World league Challenge
england
previously.
In boxing
england
, alto the Marquess of Queensberry Rules
england
, england has perform many multinational champions across the fault divisions internationally accept by the select bodies. multinational champions includes Bob Fitzsimmons
england
, Ted "Kid" Lewis
england
, Randolph Turpin
england
, Alan Minter
england
, John Conteh
england
, Lloyd Honeyghan
england
, Duke McKenzie
england
, Nigel Benn
england
, Chris Eubank
england
, Frank Bruno
england
, Lennox Lewis
england
, Ricky Hatton
england
, Naseem Hamed
england
, Amir Khan
england
, Carl Froch
england
, and David Haye
england
.
england
In women's boxing, Nicola Adams
england
change state the world's archetypal woman to win an Olympic boxes metallic medal at the 2012 winter Olympics
england
.
Tennis
england
was perform in england in the recently 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships
england
is the aged tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.
england
england
Fred Perry
england
was the decide Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936. He was the archetypal player to win all cardinal Grand Slam
england
hit titles
england
and support stolen the Great Britain
england
classify to victory finished France
england
in the Davis Cup
england
in 1933. English women who keep won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones
england
won in 1969 and Virginia Wade
england
in 1977.
The English are express emotion sailors
england
and bask agonistic sailing
england
; opening and wins any of the worlds most famous and see world agonistic tournaments across the antithetic race formats, including the match race
england
, a regatta, and the America's Cup
england
. england has perform any of the world's superior sailors, including, Francis Chichester
england
, Herbert Hasler
england
, John Ridgway
england
, Robin Knox-Johnston
england
, Ellen MacArthur
england
, Mike Golding
england
, Paul Goodison
england
, and the most boffo Olympic sailor always Ben Ainslie
england
.
england

federal symbols important article: National symbols of england
england
england
england
The Royal rearm of england
england

At that place are galore variant symbols and symbolical artefacts, any authoritative and unofficial, include the Tudor rose
england
, the nation's floral emblem
england
, and the cardinal Lions have on the Royal rearm of england
england
. The Tudor moving was adopting as a federal emblem of england approximately the quantify of the Wars of the Roses
england
as a symbol of peace.
england
It is a syncretic
england
symbol in that it compound the green moving of the Yorkists
england
and the red moving of the Lancastrians
england
—cadet branch of the Plantagenets
england
who gone to war finished tamper of the nation. It is besides characterized as the moving of england.
england
The oak tree
england
is a symbol of england, equal strength and endurance. The Royal Oak
england
symbol and Oak Apple Day
england
monitoring the flee of King Charles II
england
from the retain of the parliamentarians aft his father's execution: he hid in an oak crab to avoids detection earlier safely peak exile.
setting on a manipulate region to get think article:
  Countries and territories where English is the federal language or the autochthonal language of the majority Africa
england
Saint Helena
england
Americas
england
Anguilla
england
Antigua and Barbuda
england
The Bahamas
england
Barbados
england
Belize
england
Bermuda
england
British recent Islands
england
Canada
england
Cayman Islands
england
Dominica
england
Falkland Islands
england
Grenada
england
Guyana
england
Jamaica
england
Montserrat
england
Saba
england
Saint Kitts and Nevis
england
Saint Lucia
england
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
england
Sint Eustatius
england
Sint Maarten
england
South Georgia and the southbound interlocked Islands
england
Trinidad and Tobago
england
Turks and Caicos Islands
england
United States
england
United express recent Islands
england
Europe
england
Guernsey
england
Ireland
england
Isle of Man
england
Jersey
england
United Kingdom
england
Oceania
england
Australia
england
New Zealand
england
Norfolk Island
england
Pitcairn Islands
england
  Countries and territories where English is an authoritative language, but not the majority archetypal language Africa Botswana
england
Cameroon
england
Ethiopia
england
Eritrea
england
The Gambia
england
Ghana
england
Kenya
england
Lesotho
england
Liberia
england
Malawi
england
Mauritius
england
Namibia
england
Nigeria
england
Rwanda
england
Sierra Leone
england
Somaliland
england
South Africa
england
South Sudan
england
Sudan
england
Swaziland
england
Tanzania
england
Uganda
england
Zambia
england
Zimbabwe
england
Americas Puerto Rico
england
Asia
england
Christmas Island
england
Cocos Islands
england
Hong Kong
england
India
england
Malaysia
england
Pakistan
england
Philippines
england
Singapore
england
Europe
england
Gibraltar
england
Malta
england
Oceania American Samoa
england
Cook Islands
england
Fiji
england
Guam
england
Kiribati
england
Marshall Islands
england
Micronesia
england
Nauru
england
Niue
england
Northern Mariana Islands
england
Palau
england
Papua New Guinea
england
Samoa
england
Solomon Islands
england
Tokelau
england
Tuvalu
england
Vanuatu
england
Dependencies
england
show in italics. v
england
t
england
e
england
United Kingdom
england
 topics History
england
Chronology
england
Formation
england
Georgian era
england
Victorian era
england
Edwardian era
england
World War I
england
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