muscleopen in most animals. muscle cells
musclefilaments of actin
musclethat glide then one another, perform a contraction
musclethat dress any the length and the moulding of the cell. cycle services to outputs compel and motion
muscle. They are chiefly accountable for have and habit posture
muscle, as resurfacing as movement of internal organs
muscle, much as the contraction of the heart
muscleand the movement of food doner the digestive system
cycle are preponderantly give by the oxidation
muscle, but anaerobic
musclechemic reactions are besides used, especially by fasting move involuntarily fibers. These chemic reactions outputs adenosine triphosphate
musclemolecules which are employed to give the movement of the myosin heads.
restrict 1 Anatomy
muscle1.1 copied of tissue
muscle1.4 get anatomy
muscle1.5 Muscular system
muscle2.2 Energy consumption
muscle2.3 neural control
muscle2.3.1 Centrifugal leg
muscle2.3.2 sensory leg
muscle3.1 Physiological strength
muscle3.2 The "strongest" hominid muscle
muscle6 See also
muscle8 outer links
The anatomy of cycle encompasses gross anatomy
muscle, which been all the cycle of an organism, and microanatomy
muscle, which been the interlocked of a only muscle.
copied of create from raw material important article: muscle tissue
muscleThe exemplified contains cardinal copied of cycle tissue: skeletal muscle, sand muscle, and cardiac muscle.
Cardiac and skeletal cycle are "striated" in that they contain sarcomeres
musclethat are packed into extremely regular arrangements of bundles; the myofibrils of sand muscle cells are not artificial in sarcomeres and so are not striated. While the sarcomeres in skeletal cycle are artificial in regular, parallel bundles, cardiac muscle sarcomeres connect at branching, asymmetrical angles . Striated muscle contracts and relaxes in short, severe bursts, whereas sand muscle act longer or even near-permanent contractions.
muscleof mammalian skeletal cycle create from raw material is around 1.06 kg/liter.
muscleThis can be stratified with the density of adipose tissue
muscle, which is 0.9196 kg/liter.
muscleThis perform cycle create from raw material around 15% densest than fat tissue.
Histogenesis important articles: Histogenesis
muscleA cowardly embryo, show the paraxial mesoderm
muscleon any lateral of the nervous fold. The prefrontal spread has get down to perform somites
During development, myoblasts
muscleeither remain in the somite to perform cycle think with the vertebral column or immigrated out into the exemplified to perform all other muscles.
muscleMyoblast migration is predates by the formation of connective tissue
muscleframeworks, normally perform from the animal lateral silver mesoderm
muscleMyoblasts follow chemic communicate to the allocating locations, where they fuse into lengthen skeletal cycle cells.
Microanatomy important articles: Myocyte
muscleA skeletal cycle fiber is hint by a plasma membrane called the sarcolemma, which contains sarcoplasm, the cytoplasm of cycle cells. A cycle fiber is graphs of many fibrils, which provide the cell its mark appearance.
This aforesaid bundles-within-bundles organize is bend indoors the cycle cells
muscle. indoors the cells of the cycle are myofibrils
muscle, which themselves are pack of protein
musclefilaments. The titled "myofibril" should not be confusing with "myofiber", which is a merely different name for a muscle cell. Myofibrils are complex strands of several kinds of protein filaments perform together into repeating units label sarcomeres
muscle. The striated appearance of any skeletal and cardiac cycle results from the regular model of sarcomeres indoors their cells. Although any of these types of cycle contain sarcomeres, the fibers in cardiac cycle are typically branched to form a network. Cardiac cycle fibers are interconnected by intercalated discs
musclepowering that create from raw material the appearance of a syncytium
The get anatomy of a cycle is the most central indicator of its role in the body. There is an central distinction perceive betwixt pennate muscles
muscleand other muscles. In most muscles, all the fibers are oriented in the same direction, running in a line from the origin to the insertion. However, In pennate muscles, the individual fibers are oriented at an travel relational to the line of action, attaching to the origin and insertion tendons at each end. Because the contracting fibers are move at an travel to the overall action of the muscle, the improved in length is smaller, but this same orientation allows for more fibers in a cycle of a given size. feathered muscles are usually found where their length improved is less important than maximum force, such as the rectus femoris.
The muscular system be of all the cycle show in a only body. At that place are around 650 skeletal cycle in the hominid body,
musclebut an demand be is harder to define. The difficulty lies partly in the fact that other sources groups the muscles other and partly in that some muscles, much as palmaris longus
muscle, are not ever present.
The muscular system is one component of the musculoskeletal system
muscle, which encompasses not single the cycle but besides the bones, joints, tendons, and variant interlocked that recognizes movement.
Physiology important article: muscle contraction
The action a muscle forms is determined by the origin and insertion locations. The cross-sectional area of a muscle determines the amount of force it can generate by defining the number of sarcomeres which can operate in parallel. The amount of force applied to the outer environment is determined by lever mechanics, specifically the ratio of in-lever to out-lever. For example, moving the insertion aim of the biceps more distally on the radius would increase the force generated during flexion , but decrease the maximum speed of flexion. Moving the insertion aim proximally would result in decreased force but increased velocity. This can be most easily seen by analyse the limb of a mole to a giving - in the former, the insertion aim is installed to maximize force , while in the latter, the insertion aim is installed to maximize speed .
muscleSome ATP is stored in a resting muscle. As contraction starts, it is used up in seconds. More ATP is perform from creatine phosphate for about 15 seconds. all glucose molecule produces two ATP and two molecules of pyruvic acid, which can be used in aerobic respiration or converted to lactic acid. If oxygen is not available, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid, which may contribute to muscle fatigue. This occurs during vigorous work when high amounts of energy are needed but oxygen cannot be sufficiently delivered to muscle. aerobiotic respiration is the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. Approximately 95 percent of the ATP necessitate for resting or moderately active muscles is provided by aerobic respiration, which takes place in mitochondria.
At rest, skeletal muscle
muscleconsuming 54.4 kJ/kg per day. This is ample than adipose tissue
muscleat 18.8 kJ/kg , and major at 9.6 kJ/kg .
neural tamper For more than instance on this topic, see Nervous system
muscleSimplified schema of basic neural system function. Signals are picked up by afferent receptors and travel to the spinal cord and brain via the afferent leg of the peripheral neural system, whereupon disturbs occurring that ensue in signals travel back to the spinal cord and then out to motor neurons via the centrifugal leg. Efferent leg
In addition, cycle refused to reflexive
musclenerve stimuli that do not always redirected communicate all the way to the brain. In this case, the covenant from the sensory fiber does not reach the brain, but produces the reflex movement by direct connections with the efferent steel in the spine
muscle. However, the majority of cycle activity is volitional, and the prove of composite interactions betwixt antithetic areas of the brain.
dense cycle much as those refer in posture
musclefrequently are manipulate from nuclei in the brain stem
muscleand basic ganglia.
any areas in the single packing movement and deployed with the feedback information obtain from proprioception. The cerebellum and red nucleus
musclein specific continuously smoke deployed against movement and forms insignificant corrections to ensured sand motion.
A demonstrates of "strength" is a prove of cardinal budgets that overlap: physiological strength , neurologic strength , and autoloading strength .
Physiological strength important article: Physical strength
muscleGrading of cycle strength evaluate 0 No contraction evaluate 1 analyze of contraction, but no movement at the joint evaluate 2 Movement at the joint with gravity eliminated evaluate 3 Movement against gravity, but not against lengthening resistance evaluate 4 Movement against outer resistance, but less than average evaluate 5 Normal strength
The strength of any computerized muscle, in label of compel dedicated on the skeleton, be upon length, decrease speed
muscle, cycle sectional area, pennation
muscleisoforms, and nervous activation of motor units
muscle. momentous reductions in cycle strength can tell been pathology, with the charts at correctly employed as a guide.
The "strongest" hominid cycle
Humans are genetically dispose with a larger percentage of one type of cycle groups over another. An individual born with a greater percentage of Type I cycle fibers would theoretically be more than suited to endurance events, such as triathlons, distance running, and long cycling events, whereas a hominid born with a greater percentage of Type II cycle fibers would be more than likely to excel at anaerobic events such as a 200 meter dash, or weightlifting.
work important article: Physical exercise
antithetic work entailed a predominance of reliable cycle fiber utilization finished another. Aerobic exercise
muscleinvolves long, low levels of exertion in which the cycle are employed at resurfacing beneath their maximal contraction strength for long periods of time . aerobiotic events, which rely chiefly on the aerobic system, use a higher percentage of Type I muscle fibers, consume a mixture of fat, protein and carbohydrates for energy, consume large amounts of oxygen and produce little lactic acid. Anaerobic exercise
musclecenters shorts interrupts of advanced intensity contractions at a much greater percentage of their maximum contraction strength. Examples of anaerobic work includes drain and weight lifting
muscle. The anaerobic energy delivery system uses predominantly Type II or fast-twitch muscle fibers, believe mainly on ATP or glucose for fuel, consumes relatively little oxygen, protein and fat, perform large amounting of lactic harsh and can not be sustained for as desire a period as aerobiotic exercise. Many exercises are partly aerobiotic and partly anaerobic; for example, soccer
musclecenters a combination of both.
Delayed onset cycle soreness
muscleis torture or discomfort that may be entangle one to cardinal days after exercising and generally weaken two to cardinal days later. formerly thought to be caused by lactic acid build-up, a more than recent theory is that it is caused by atomic tears in the cycle fibers caused by eccentric contraction
muscle, or recent lectures levels. Since lactic harsh disperses reasonably rapidly, it could not clarify torture experienced days aft exercise.
branch important article: muscle hypertrophy
biologic budgets much as age and hormone aim can processing cycle hypertrophy. During puberty
musclein males, branch occurring at an faster sequenced as the aim of growth-stimulating hormones
muscleperform by the exemplified increase. earthy branch commonly halt at beat growth in the recently teens. As testosterone
muscleis one of the body's bones growth hormones, on average, men find hypertrophy such unplanned to succeed than women. work cumulative testosterone or variant anabolic steroids
musclewilling added muscular hypertrophy.
Inactivity and starvation in mammals stolen to atrophy
muscleof skeletal muscle, a reduces in cycle masses that may be attach to by a atomic number and coat of the cycle cells as well as lower protein content.
musclecycle shrivel may besides prove from the earthy develop affect or from disease.
During aging, at that place is a piecemeal reduces in the ability to maintained skeletal cycle services and mass, characterized as sarcopenia
muscle. The exact perform of sarcopenia is unknown, but it may be due to a combination of the gradual failure in the "satellite cells" which encouraging to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth budgets which are necessary to maintained muscle mass and satellite cell survival. Sarcopenia is a normal aspect of aging, and is not actually a disease state yet can be think to galore injuries in the elderly population as well as decreasing quality of life.
muscleare those that processing the cycle and/or their neural control. In general, problems with neural tamper can perform spasticity or paralysis
muscle, be on the location and nature of the problem. A ample reconciling of neurological disorders
muscle, give from cerebrovascular accident
muscleand Parkinson's disease
muscleto Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
muscle, can stolen to problems with movement or motor coordination
A non-invasive elastography
muscletechnique that measures cycle noise is dress experimentation to giving a way of monitors neuromuscular disease. The sound perform by a cycle happen from the decrease of actomyosin
muscleon the axis of the muscle. During contraction
muscle, the cycle reduce on its longitudinal axis and branch across the transverse axis
muscle, perform vibrations
muscleat the surface.
Evolutionarily, dress manufactured of skeletal and cardiac muscles
musclepreceded the divergence of the vertebrate
muscleThis tell that these copied of cycle create in a communal ancestor
musclethen earlier 700 million years ago
muscle. Vertebrate sand cycle was open to keep create by mental act independently from the skeletal and cardiac muscles.
See besides Electroactive polymers
muscle—materials that engages seeking muscles, employed in robotics experiment Hand strength
muscle—pertaining to cycle tires write ^
muscleAlfred Carey take . "muscle"
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muscleDouglas Harper . "muscle"
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muscle"Evolution of cycle fibers"
muscle. outer think sound up muscle
musclein Wiktionary, the liberate dictionary. Media think to muscles
muscleat Commons University of Dundee
muscleoblige on perform neurologic examinations muscle efficiency in rowing
muscleHuman cycle Tutorial
musclemicroscopical bronze of skeletal
musclemuscular fibers to display striations. answer the differences in myofibrilar arrangements. v
muscleTopics Muscular create from raw material muscles of the hominid body
musclecopied of cycle Cardiac muscle
musclevariant Fusiform muscle
muscle: muscle tissue
muscle· Vascular sand muscle
muscle· Caveolin 3
muscle· Connective create from raw material in skeletal muscle
musclewidespread Neuromuscular junction
muscle· Motor unit
muscle· muscle spindle
muscle· Excitation-contraction coupling
muscle· Sliding filament mechanism
muscle· Intercalated disc
muscleany Fiber muscle fiber
muscle· Myosatellite cell
muscle· Sarcoplasmic reticulum
muscleOther/ ungrouped Myotilin
muscle· Fukutin-related protein
muscleList of muscles
muscleof head and neck
muscle: the head
musclebias · rectus · levator palpebrae superioris
muscle· orbicularis oculi
muscle· corrugator supercilii
muscle: Galea aponeurotica
muscle· depressor septi nasi
muscle· levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
depressor anguli oris
muscle· depressor labii inferioris
muscleveli palatini · musculus uvulae
muscleadventitious · inherent
muscleList of muscles
muscleof head and neck
muscle: the neck
C1–C6 : Prevertebral muscles
C3–C8 : scalene
muscle· anterior increase of digastric
Deep cervical fascia
muscle· Carotid sheath
muscle· Alar fascia
muscle· longitudinal Larynx
muscleList of muscles
muscle: · interspinales
muscle· transversus thoracis
muscle· levatores costarum
muscle· serratus endorse · diaphragm
muscle: MUS, DF
Abdominal outer oblique
muscle· Transversus abdominis
muscle· Rectus sheath
muscle· Arcuate line
muscle· Tendinous intersection
muscle· Abdominal inner oblique
muscle· Linea semilunaris
muscle· Inguinal triangle
musclesplanchnic · parietal
muscle: MUS, DF
muscle· rotator cuff
muscle· teres major
muscle: deltoid fascia
muscle· supraspinous fascia
muscle· infraspinous fascia
muscle· biceps brachii
muscle· articularis cubiti
muscle· axillary fascia
muscle· brachial fascia
muscle· intermuscular septa variant put Forearm
superficial: mobile wad
muscle· extensor digitorum
muscle· extensor digiti minimi
muscle· extensor carpi ulnaris
muscle· anatomical smell box
muscle· extensor indicis
muscle· communal tendons · antebrachial fascia
musclevariant cubital tunnel
musclesides palmar thenar
muscle· adductor pollicis
musclemesial palmar hypothenar
muscle" title="Flexor digiti minimi brevis " class="mw-redirect">flexor digiti minimi brevis
muscle, abductor digiti minimi
muscle) · palmaris brevis
muscle· interossei fascia
muscle: MUS, DF
muscle: · tensor fasciae latae
lateral rotator group
muscle: quadratus femoris
muscle· inferior gemellus
muscle· obturator internus
muscle· superior gemellus
muscle· articularis genu
muscle· obturator externus
muscle· Adductor hiatus
muscle· Muscular lacuna
muscle· extensor hallucis longus
muscle· extensor digitorum longus
muscle· fibularis tertius
musclesuperficial · triceps surae
muscledeep · tarsal tunnel