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New york city

March 22nd, 2014
Bronx
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, Kings
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, New York
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, Queens
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, Richmond
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Historic colony
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Province of New York
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New Netherland
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improved 1624 Incorporated
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1898 Government
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 • Type Mayor–Council
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 • Body new york city Council
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 • Mayor
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Bill de Blasio
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" title="Democratic Party ">D
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) Area
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 • Total 468.5 sq mi  • Land 302.6 sq mi  • Water 165.8 sq mi  • Metro 13,318 sq mi Elevation
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33 ft Population
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 • Estimate  8,336,697
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 • Rank 1st, U.S.
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 • Density 27,550/sq mi  • Metro
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19,831,858  • CSA
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23,362,099 Demonym
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New Yorker Time zone
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Eastern
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 • Summer EDT
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ZIP code
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100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx, 116xx Area code
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212
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, 347
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, 646
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, 718
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, 917
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, 929
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FIPS code
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36-51000 GNIS
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have ID 975772 bones airports John F. Kennedy International
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, LaGuardia
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, Newark Liberty International
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Website www.nyc.gov
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find on one of the world's ample earthy harbors
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,
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new york city be of cardinal boroughs
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, all of which is a county of New York State
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.
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The cardinal boroughs—The Bronx
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, Brooklyn
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, Manhattan
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, Queens
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, and Staten Island
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—were consolidate into a only city in 1898.
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With a census-estimated 2012 population of 8,336,697
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strewn finished a beach area of conscionable 302.64 shape miles ,
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New York is the most dumbly populated
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bones city in the connects States.
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As galore as 800 languages are oral in New York,
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building it the most linguistically antithetic city in the world.
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By 2012 censuses estimates, the New York Metropolitan Area's population be by a momentous margin the connects States' ample Metropolitan Statistical Area
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, with around 19.8 million people,
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and is besides move of the most inhabited Combined Statistical Area
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in the connects States, containing an reason 23.4 million people.
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galore districts and landmarks in new york city keep arose resurfacing characterized to its approximately 50 cardinal one-year visitors.
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Times Square
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, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World",
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is the brilliantly lighting hub of the Broadway theatre
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district,
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one of the world's at work tedious intersections,
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and a bones refer of the world's entertainment industry.
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The designate of galore of the city's bridges
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, skyscrapers
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,
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and parks
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are characterized approximately the world. new york city's fiscal district, locks by Wall Street
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in Lower Manhattan
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, has appeared label the world's directive fiscal center
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and is chambers to the New York gates Exchange
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, the world's ample gates transmit by average market capitalization
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of its travel companies.
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Manhattan's actual estate trade is among the most costly in the world.
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Manhattan's Chinatown
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increase the advanced concentration of taiwanese populate in the occidental Hemisphere.
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give unremitting 24/7 service,
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the new york city Subway
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is one of the most ample rapid transit
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systems worldwide. galore colleges and universities are find in New York,
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includes Columbia University
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, New York University
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, and Rockefeller University
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, which keep appeared been among the top 35 in the world.
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History important article: History of new york city
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aboriginal history
The archetypal logs visited by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano
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, a Florentine
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explorer in the function of the French crown
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, who moving his travel La Dauphine
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into New York Harbor
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. He claimed the area for France and designate it "Nouvelle Angoulême" .
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Peter Minuit
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is credit with the get of the island of Manhattan in 1626.
In 1609, English
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explorer Henry Hudson
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re-discovered the region when he moving his travel the Halve Maen
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into New York smouldering while fish for the Northwest Passage
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to the Orient
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for his employer the Dutch eastbound India Company
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. He talk to moving up what he designate the North River
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, besides label the Mauritis River, and now characterized as the Hudson River
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, to the travel of the present-day New York note primary of Albany
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in the belief that it might constitute an pelagic tributary
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. When the river change and was no agelong saline
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, he incarnate it wasn't a sea passage and moving back downriver. He perform a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for his employer. In 1614 the area betwixt Cape Cod
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and Delaware Bay
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would be claimed by the Netherlands
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and label Nieuw-Nederland .
A abiding European presence in New Netherland get down in 1624 with the opening of a Dutch fur trading
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settlement on Governors Island. In 1625 construction was been on a citadel and a Fort Amsterdam
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on Manhattan Island, concomitant label New Amsterdam .
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The colony of New Amsterdam was involves at the travel which would finally arose move Manhattan. The location of Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit
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obtaining the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a atomic strapped of the Lenape,
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in 1626 for a find of 60 guilders
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;
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a disproved legend says that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.
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In 1702, the city losing 10% of its population to yellow fever
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.
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New York smouldering cardinal bones yellow fever epidemics
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from 1702 to 1800.
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The trial in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger
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in 1735 support to based the freedom of the press
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in northbound America. In 1754, Columbia University
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was initiative alto specified by King George II
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as King's College in move Manhattan.
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The Stamp Act Congress
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met in New York in October 1765 as the Sons of Liberty
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perform in the city, battles finished the consecutive ten years with British gimp setting there.
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The Battle of desire Island
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, the ample battles of the American Revolution
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, work travel in Brooklyn
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in 1776.
The single act at a halcyon solution to the war work travel at the Conference House
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on Staten Island betwixt American delegates
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includes Benjamin Franklin
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, and British widespread Lord Howe
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on September 11, 1776. soon aft the British occupation get down the Great guns of New York
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occurred, a ample conflagration which destroying around a quarters of the buildings in the city, include Trinity Church
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.
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alto New York State's "Gradual Abolition
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law of 1799", children of work mother be born to be finally change state but be see in indentured servitude
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until their mid-to-late twenties.
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unneurotic with take liberate by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaping slaves, bit by bit a significant free-black population developed in Manhattan. alto much authoritative United express founders
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as Alexander Hamilton
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and John Jay
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the New York Manumission Society
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work for abolition and open the African liberate School
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to sophisticated white children.
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It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely cashier in the state, and free blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. The city's black population peak more than than 16,000 in 1840.
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any egregious American literary rating lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, include William Cullen Bryant
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, Washington Irving
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, Herman Melville
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, Rufus Wilmot Griswold
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, John Keese
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, Nathaniel Parker Willis
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, and Edgar Allan Poe
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. Public-minded members of the old merchant decide solicit for the establishment of Central Park
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, which in 1857 change state the archetypal decorate put in an American city.
contemporary history
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Manhattan's Little Italy
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, Lower eastbound Side
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, circa 1900.
Democratic Party
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candidates be systematically adopted to local office, augmentative the city's locks to the southbound and its ascendant party. In 1861 Mayor Fernando Wood
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label on the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the connects express after the southbound seceded, but his proposal was not acted on.
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pique at new military conscription
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laws during the American civilian War
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led to the Draft riot of 1863
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, led by societal Irish work class.
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In 1898, the modern City of New York was perform with the consolidation of Brooklyn , the County of New York , the County of Richmond, and the western spread of the County of Queens.
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The founded of the subway
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in 1904, archetypal perform as segment clannish systems, helped befriended the new city together. End-to-end the archetypal fractional of the 20th century, the city became a multinational center for industry, commerce, and communication.
New York's non-white population was 36,620 in 1890.
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In the 1920s, new york city was a priming destination for African Americans during the Great Migration
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from the American South. By 1916, new york city was chambers to the ample urban African diaspora in northbound America. The Harlem Renaissance
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of literary and cultural life branch during the era of Prohibition
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. The ample economic look perform construction of plays skyscrapers that changed the skyline into its acknowledgeable twentieth-century shape.
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The Stonewall Inn
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in Greenwich Village
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, a labeled National then Landmark
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as the travel of the 1969 Stonewall Riots
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.
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moving World War II
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veterans perform a postwar businesslike look and the development of ample housing tracts
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in eastbound Queens. New York be from the war uninjured as the directive city of the world, with Wall Street directive America's place as the world's dominant businesslike power. The United Nations Headquarters
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word New York's governmental influence, and the tower of abstract expressionism
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in the city perform New York's displacement of Paris
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as the refer of the art world.
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The city smouldering the lowest nationally of the September 11, 2001 attacks
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, when active 3,000 populate change state in the destruction of tower 1, 2, and 7 of the World marketing Center
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.
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A new complex
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, which encompasses One multinational marketing Center
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, a 9/11 memorial and museum
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, and cardinal variant office towers, is be perform on the site. The archetypal buildings are through and it is scheduling for completion by 2014.
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The World marketing refer PATH station
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, which was open on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was besides destroying in the attack. A acting station was perform and open on November 23, 2003. A permanent station, the World marketing refer Transportation Hub
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, is presently be forms and is scheduling to be end in the support quarters of 2014.
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At the quantify of its completion in 2014, the new One multinational marketing refer willing be the tall making in the occidental Hemisphere
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and the third-tallest making in the world
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by pinnacle
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height, with its spire
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peak a symbolical 1,776 feet in write to the year of American independence
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.
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This new supertall skyscraper
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has appeared the tall making in new york city since April 30, 2012.
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Geography important articles: Geography of new york city
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and Geography of New York Harbor
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Satellite imagery
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instance the cave of the new york city Metropolitan Area
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.
The Hudson River travel doner the Hudson Valley
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into New York Bay
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. betwixt new york city and Troy, New York
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, the river is an estuary
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.
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The Hudson segment the city from New Jersey
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. The East River
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—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound
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and segment the Bronx and Manhattan from desire Island. The Harlem River
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, different tidal dress betwixt the eastbound and Hudson Rivers, segment most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River
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, which travel doner the Bronx and Westchester County
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, is the single exclusively fresh water
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river in the city.
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The city's average area is 468.9 shape miles . 164.1 sq mi of this is watering and 304.8 sq mi is land.
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The advanced aim in the city is Todt Hill
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on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet above sea level
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, is the advanced aim on the eastbound Seaboard southbound of Maine
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.
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The peak of the enclosed is largely enclosed in woodlands as move of the Staten Island Greenbelt
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.
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Climate
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Avenue C
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in Manhattan aft swamp perform by Hurricane Sandy
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on October 29, 2012.
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Winters are coldest and damp, and dominate travel imitate that blow seaward reduces the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the broken wall of the Appalachians
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maintain the city warmer in the invested than inland northbound American cities find at similar or lesser latitudes much as Pittsburgh
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, Cincinnati
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, and Indianapolis
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. The normal cyclic advanced temperature in January, the area's unconscious month, is 38.3 °F ; however, invested temperatures can on occasion peak as low as 0 °F ,
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and January temperatures keep reached the low 70s . Spring and autumn are aleatory and can range from unemotional to warm, although they are normally milder with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with an normal daily July high temperature of 84.1 °F . Nighttime teach are frequently exacerbated by the urban change island
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phenomenon, while daytime temperatures transcend 90 °F on normal of 17 days all winter and can transcend 100 °F .
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intense temperatures keep range from −15 °F , rescue on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F on July 9, 1936.
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Climate data for New York Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year logs advanced °F 72 75 86 96 99 101 106 104 102 94 84 75 106 normal advanced °F 38.3 41.6 49.7 61.2 70.8 79.3 84.1 82.6 75.2 63.8 53.8 43.0 62.0 normal low °F 26.9 28.9 35.2 44.8 54.0 63.6 68.9 67.9 60.8 50.0 41.6 32.0 47.9 logs low °F −6 −15 3 12 32 44 52 50 39 28 7 −13 −15 Precipitation
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inch 3.65 3.09 4.36 4.49 4.19 4.41 4.60 4.44 4.28 4.40 4.02 4.00 49.92 Snowfall inch 8.0 9.4 3.7 0.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 4.8 26.7 Avg. precipitation days 10.4 9.2 10.9 11.5 11.1 11.2 10.4 9.5 8.7 8.9 9.6 10.6 121.9 Avg. enclosed days 4.1 2.9 1.8 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 2.3 11.5 meant cyclic sunshine hours
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162.7 163.1 212.5 225.6 256.6 257.3 268.2 268.2 219.3 211.2 151.0 139.0 2,534.7 Source: NOAA
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Demographics favor information: Demographics of new york city
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new york city societal enclaves
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, and Demographic write of new york city
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City analyze to note & U.S. 2000 Census
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NY City NY State U.S. Total population 8,213,839 18,976,457 281,421,906 Population, percent change, 1990 to 2000 +9.4% +5.5% +13.1% Population density 26,403/mi² 402/mi² 80/mi² Median household income $38,293 $43,393 $41,994 Bachelor's degree or higher 27% 27% 29% Foreign born 36% 20% 11% White 35% 62% 67% Black 28% 16% 12% Hispanic 27% 15% 11% Asian 10% 6% 4% Historical population Year Pop.   ±%   1698 4,937 —     1712 5,840 +18.3% 1723 7,248 +24.1% 1737 10,664 +47.1% 1746 11,717 +9.9% 1756 13,046 +11.3% 1771 21,863 +67.6% 1790
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49,401 +126.0% 1800
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79,216 +60.4% 1810
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119,734 +51.1% 1820
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152,056 +27.0% 1830
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242,278 +59.3% 1840
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391,114 +61.4% 1850
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696,115 +78.0% 1860
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1,174,779 +68.8% 1870
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1,478,103 +25.8% 1880
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1,911,698 +29.3% 1890
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2,507,414 +31.2% 1900
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3,437,202 +37.1% 1910
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4,766,883 +38.7% 1920
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5,620,048 +17.9% 1930
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6,930,446 +23.3% 1940
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7,454,995 +7.6% 1950
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7,891,957 +5.9% 1960
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7,781,984 −1.4% 1970
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7,894,862 +1.5% 1980
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7,071,639 −10.4% 1990
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7,322,564 +3.5% 2000
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8,008,288 +9.4% 2010
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8,175,133 +2.1% 2012 8,336,697 +2.0% Note: censuses rating enclosed the show area of all five boroughs, earlier and after the 1898 consolidation. For new york city itself earlier evaluate move of the Bronx in 1874, see Manhattan#Demographics
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.
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Sources: 1698–1771,
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new york city is the most inhabited city in the connects States,
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with an reason logs advanced of 8,336,697 residents as of 2012,
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integrated more than immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 connects express Census
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.
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More than populate bachelor in new york city than in the consecutive two most inhabited U.S. cities combined.
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Hispanics
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of any campaigns equal 28.6% of the population,
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while Asians graphs the fastest-growing filtered of the city's population betwixt 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white
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population change state 3 percent, the lowercase rescue decline in decades; and for the archetypal quantify since the civilian War, the number of white change state finished a decade.
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In 2010, the city had a population density of 27,532 people per square mile , forms it the most dumbly been of all municipalities house over 100,000 residents in the connects States; however, any small cities in closer Hudson County, New Jersey
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are more heavy overall
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, as per the 2000 Census.
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End-to-end its history, the city has appeared a bones port of entry
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for immigrants into the connects States; more than than 12 cardinal European
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immigrants travel doner Ellis Island
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betwixt 1892 and 1924.
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The titled "melting pot
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" was archetypal create verbally to outlining dumbly been immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower eastbound Side
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. By 1900, Germans
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graphs the ample immigrant group, followed by the Irish
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, Jews
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, and Italians
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.
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In 1940, white equal 92% of the city's population.
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The new york city metropolitan area is ethnically diverse
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.
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It is chambers to the ample Jewish community
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outdoors Israel
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.
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The metropolitan area is besides chambers to 20% of the nation's Indian Americans
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and at least 20 Little India
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enclaves, as resurfacing as 15% of all Korean Americans
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and cardinal Koreatowns
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;
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the ample Asian Indian
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population in the occidental Hemisphere; the ample Russian American
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,
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Italian American
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, and African American
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populations; the ample South American
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and second-largest widespread Hispanic
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communities in the connects States; and encompasses 6 Chinatowns
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in new york city alone
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with the urban agglomeration been as of the 2010 censuses a population of 682,265 overseas Chinese
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,
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the ample outdoors of Asia
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.
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aggregate satellites
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of the archetypal Manhattan Chinatown
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, in Brooklyn
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, and approximately Flushing, further
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, are branch as traditionally urban enclaves, as large-scale Chinese immigration
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behave into New York and rooms areas.
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new york city is chambers to the largest gay and bisexual community
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in the connects States.
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new york city has the ample non-Hispanic white
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population of any American city. At 2.7 cardinal in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic green population is ample than the green populations of Los Angeles , Chicago , and Houston combined.
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The European American
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population of the city is dead diverse. match to 2012 censuses estimates, at that place be around 560,000 Italian Americans
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, 385,000 Irish Americans
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, 253,000 German Americans
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, 223,000 Russian Americans
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, 201,000 Polish Americans
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, and 137,000 English Americans
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. Additionally, Greek
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and French Americans
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been 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian
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descent times in at 60,000 people. Ukrainian
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and Scottish Americans
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been 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. populate of Norwegian
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and Swedish
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descent any be at around 20,000 each. Lastly, populate of Czech
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, Lithuanian
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, Portuguese
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, Scotch-Irish
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, and Welsh
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descent all been betwixt 12,000-14,000 people.
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The New York metropolitan area is chambers to a self-identifying gay
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and bisexual
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community reason at 568,903 individuals, the ample in the connects States.
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Same-sex marriages in New York
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be recognizes on June 24, 2011 and be accept to lead travel get down 30 days thereafter.
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New York has architecturally notable buildings in a widest crops of term and from antithetic quantify periods from the saltbox style
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Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House
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in Brooklyn, the aged separate of which go out to 1656, to the contemporary One multinational marketing Center
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, the skyscraper presently alto construction at Ground Zero
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in move Manhattan and presently the most costly new office soaring in the world.
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The 1916 Regulate Resolution
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necessitate setbacks
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in new buildings, and contents tower to a percentage of the lot size
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, to allowance sunlight to peak the streets below.
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The Art Deco
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label of the Chrysler Building
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and Empire note Building
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, with their decrease outranking and nerve spires
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, reflected the standardized requirements. The buildings keep diagnostic ornamentation, much as the eagle at the corners of the 61st catch on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the satisfactory examples of the Art Deco
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style.
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A extremely authoritative example of the international style
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in the connects express is the Seagram Building
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, diagnostic for its façade use circumpolar bronze-toned I-beams
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to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building
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is a egregious example of green design
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in American skyscrapers.
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hit and brick became the city's making materials of ace aft the construction of wood-frame accommodate was manipulate in the aftermath of the Great guns of 1835
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.
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A diagnostic have of galore of the city's buildings is the woody roof-mounted water towers
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. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to forestall the requires for excessively high water pressure at move elevations, which could interrupts municipal water pipes.
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Garden apartments
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change state favorite during the 1920s in remote areas, much as Jackson Heights
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.
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installed
In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The relied for In the public eye Land
new york city
inform that new york city had the 2nd pulses put system among the 50 most inhabited U.S. cities.
new york city
ParkScore ranks urban put systems by a formula that investigates average put size, put acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents indoors a half-mile of a park, spending of put servicing per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.
federal put System units indoors city manipulate important article: National put Service
new york city
new york city
new york city
New York Harbor
new york city
's Statue of Liberty federal Monument
new york city
, in May 2001, with the former mismatched tower of the World marketing Center
new york city
and Lower Manhattan
new york city
in the background.
The Statue of Liberty federal Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum
new york city
are attain by the federal put function and are find in any the express of New York and New Jersey
new york city
. They are connected in the smouldering by Governors Island federal Monument
new york city
, find in New York. then travel alto nationalist management on Manhattan Island includes Castle Clinton federal Monument
new york city
; Federal Hall federal Memorial
new york city
; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace federal then Site
new york city
; General provide federal Memorial
new york city
; African Burial grounds federal Monument
new york city
; and Hamilton Grange federal Memorial
new york city
. Hundreds of clannish properties are travel on the National show of then Places
new york city
or as a National then Landmark
new york city
much as, for example, the Stonewall Inn
new york city
in Greenwich Village
new york city
as the catalyst of the contemporary gay rights movement
new york city
.
new york city
new york city

New York note installed important article: New York note Parks
new york city

new york city has finished 28,000 acres of municipal parkland and 14 miles of in the public eye beaches.
new york city
Parks
new york city
in new york city includes Central Park
new york city
, Prospect Park
new york city
, Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
new york city
, Forest Park
new york city
, and Washington shape Park
new york city
. The ample municipal put in the city is Pelham Bay Park
new york city
with 2,700 acres .
new york city

Central Park
new york city
an 883-acre put in Manhattan, is the most visit city put in the connects States, with 25 cardinal visitors all year.
new york city
The put contains a innumerable of attractions; at that place are any lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central put Zoo
new york city
, the Central put Conservatory Garden
new york city
, the 106-acre Jackie Onassis Reservoir. interior attractions includes Belvedere Castle
new york city
with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the then Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund
new york city
manager John A. Paulson
new york city
announced a $100 million gift to the Central put Conservancy
new york city
, the ample always pecuniary donation to new york city's put system.
new york city
Prospect Park
new york city
in Brooklyn has a 90-acre meadow, a lake and ample woodlands. find indoors the put is the historic battles Pass, which evaluate conspicuously in the battles of Long Island.
new york city
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
new york city
in Queens, the city's ordinal ample park, was the sending for the 1939 World's Fair
new york city
and the 1964 World's Fair
new york city
.
new york city
finished a fourth of the Bronx's area, 7,000 acres , is computerized finished to opening put and parks, include Van Cortlandt Park
new york city
, Pelham Bay Park
new york city
, the Bronx Zoo
new york city
, and the New York botanic Gardens
new york city
.
new york city
In Staten Island, the Conference home Park
new york city
contains the then Conference House
new york city
, travel of the single act of a halcyon resolution to the American Revolution, been by Benjamin Franklin
new york city
equal the Americans and Lord Howe
new york city
equal the British Crown
new york city
. find indoors the put is the then Burial Ridge
new york city
, the ample autochthonal American burial grounds indoors new york city.
new york city
new york city
Central Park
new york city
is the most visit city park
new york city
in the connects States. Boroughs favor information: Borough
new york city
 and Neighborhoods in new york city
new york city
new york city
new york city
The cardinal Boroughs of new york city: 1: Manhattan
new york city
2: Brooklyn
new york city
3: Queens
new york city
4: The Bronx
new york city
5: Staten Island
new york city
New York's five boroughs
new york city
overview Jurisdiction Population beach area Borough County 1 July 2012 calculate shape miles shape km Manhattan
new york city
New York 1,619,090 23 59 The Bronx
new york city
Bronx 1,408,473 42 109 Brooklyn
new york city
Kings 2,565,635 71 183 Queens
new york city
further 2,272,771 109 283 Staten Island
new york city
Richmond 470,728 58 151 City of New York 8,336,697 303 786 State of New York
new york city
19,570,261 47,214 122,284 Source: United express censuses Bureau
new york city
new york city
new york city
new york city

End-to-end the boroughs at that place are hundreds of antithetic neighborhoods
new york city
, galore with a determinable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs be all autarkic cities, cardinal of the boroughs would be among the ten most populous cities in the connects States.
Manhattan
new york city
is the most dumbly been borough and is chambers to Central Park
new york city
and most of the city's skyscrapers. Most of the borough is on Manhattan Island, at the network of the Hudson River
new york city
. Manhattan is the financial center
new york city
of the city and contains the give of galore bones corporations, the UN, a be of central universities, and galore cultural attractions. Manhattan is broadly episodic into Lower
new york city
, Midtown
new york city
, and Uptown
new york city
regions. uptown Manhattan is episodic by principal put into the Upper eastbound Side
new york city
and the Upper westbound Side
new york city
, and preparatory the put is Harlem
new york city
. new york city's be cardinal boroughs are jointly think of to as the "outer boroughs". The Bronx
new york city
is new york city's northbound borough, the location of Yankee Stadium
new york city
, chambers of the New York Yankees
new york city
, and chambers to the ample cooperatively closely-held housing
new york city
composite in the connects States, Co-op City
new york city
.
new york city
minds for a atomic separate of Manhattan characterized as Marble Hill
new york city
, the Bronx is the single separate of the city that is move of the connects States' mainland
new york city
. It is chambers to the Bronx Zoo
new york city
, the world's ample metropolitan zoo,
new york city
which enclosed 265 acres and is chambers to finished 6,000 animals.
new york city
The Bronx is the birthplace of rap
new york city
and hip hop culture
new york city
.
new york city
Brooklyn
new york city
on the occidental tip of Long Island
new york city
, is the city's most inhabited borough and was an autarkic city until 1898. Brooklyn is characterized for its cultural, societal and societal diversity, an autarkic art scene, distinct neighborhoods
new york city
and a diagnostic architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn
new york city
is the single principal cave neighborhood in the external boroughs. The borough features a desire beachfront shoreline include Coney Island
new york city
, open in the 1870s as one of the aboriginal amusement ground in the country.
new york city
Queens
new york city
on desire Island eastbound of Brooklyn, is geographically the ample borough and the most ethnically antithetic county in the United States.
new york city
Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Queens County is the only large county in the United States where the median income among African Americans, approximately $52,000 a year, is higher than that of White Americans
new york city
.
new york city
further is the travel of Citi Field
new york city
, the chambers of the New York Mets
new york city
, and yearly host the U.S. opening tennis tournament
new york city
. Additionally, it is chambers to two of the cardinal bones airports suffice the New York metropolitan area
new york city
, LaGuardia Airport
new york city
and John F. Kennedy world Airport
new york city
. Staten Island
new york city
is the most suburban in scratch of the cardinal boroughs. Staten Island is joined to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
new york city
and to Manhattan by way of the liberate Staten Island Ferry
new york city
. The Staten Island transport is one of the most favorite tourist attractions in new york city as it give best reasons of the Statue of Liberty
new york city
, Ellis Island
new york city
, and move Manhattan. find in principal Staten Island, the 2,500 acres Staten Island Greenbelt
new york city
has any 28 miles of travel trail and one of the decide untroubled put in the city.
new york city
Designated in 1984 to wall the island's earthy lands, the Greenbelt been cardinal city parks. grow and modern life favor information: Culture of new york city
new york city
 and List of populate from new york city
new york city
new york city
new york city
The Metropolitan Museum of Art
new york city
, move of Museum Mile
new york city
in the Carnegie Hill
new york city
neighborhood of Manhattan's Upper eastbound Side
new york city
, is one of the ample museums in the world.
new york city

galore bones American cultural movements get down in the city, much as the Harlem Renaissance
new york city
, which open the African-American literary canon in the connects States.
new york city
new york city
The city was a refer of jazz
new york city
new york city
in the 1940s, abstract expressionism
new york city
in the 1950s and the birthplace of hip hop
new york city
in the 1970s.
new york city
The city's punk
new york city
new york city
and hardcore
new york city
new york city
scenes be authoritative in the 1970s and 1980s, and the city has desire had a branch scene for Jewish American literature
new york city
.
New York is a prominent location in the American entertainment industry, with films, television series, books, and other media being set there. As of 2008, new york city is the second largest center for the film industry in the United States, with 63,000 workers who were paid as much as $5 billion in wages in 2008,
new york city
and by volume, New York is the multinational leader in independent film
new york city
production.
new york city
The Association of autarkic commercialized producers is besides basing in new york city.
new york city
The city has more than than than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than than than 500 art galleries of all sizes.
new york city

cardinal of the city's theaters, with more than than 500 put each, are jointly characterized as "Broadway
new york city
," aft the major thoroughfare
new york city
that cycle the Times Square
new york city
Theater District
new york city
,
new york city
sometimes think of to as "The ample green Way
new york city
".
new york city
new york city
new york city
Lincoln refer for the perform Arts
new york city
is chambers to 12 authoritative arts organizations, include the Metropolitan Opera
new york city
, new york city Opera
new york city
, New York Philharmonic
new york city
, and new york city Ballet
new york city
, as resurfacing as the Vivian Beaumont Theater
new york city
, the Juilliard School
new york city
, Jazz at Lincoln Center
new york city
, and Alice Tully Hall
new york city
. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and rescue Institute
new york city
is find in Union Square
new york city
, and Tisch educate of the Arts
new york city
is basing at New York University, while Central put SummerStage
new york city
display performances of liberate playing and music in principal Park.
new york city

Tourism favor information: Tourism in new york city
new york city
 and List of museums and cultural institutions in new york city
new york city
new york city
new york city
Times Square
new york city
has the advanced one-year attendance sequenced of any tourist attraction in the US,
new york city
and match to Travel + Leisure
new york city
magazine's October 2011 survey, the world.
new york city

bones destinations includes the Empire note Building
new york city
; Statue of Liberty
new york city
; Ellis Island
new york city
; Broadway theater productions; museums much as the Metropolitan Museum of Art
new york city
; greenspaces much as principal put and Washington shape Park
new york city
; Rockefeller Center
new york city
; meters Square; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shop on Fifth
new york city
and Madison Avenues
new york city
; and events much as the Halloween Parade
new york city
in Greenwich Village
new york city
; the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade
new york city
; the illuminated of the Rockefeller refer Christmas Tree
new york city
; the St. Patrick's Day parade
new york city
; seasonal activities much as ice sliding in principal put in the wintertime; the Tribeca rescue Festival
new york city
; and liberate performances in principal put at Summerstage. circumstantial undergo outdoors the key tourist areas of the city includes the Bronx Zoo
new york city
; Coney Island
new york city
; Flushing Meadows-Corona Park
new york city
; and the New York botanic Garden
new york city
. purpose be unveils by Mayor Michael Bloomberg on September 27, 2012 for the New York Wheel, the world's tall ferris wheel
new york city
, to be perform at the union shores of Staten Island, lack the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the move Manhattan skyline.
new york city
new york city

new york city is a refer for the television, film
new york city
, advertising, music, newspaper, and schedule perform industries and is besides the ample media trade in northbound America .
new york city
any of the city's media conglomerates
new york city
includes Time Warner
new york city
, the Thomson Reuters Corporation
new york city
, the Associated Press
new york city
, the News Corporation
new york city
, The New York meters Company
new york city
, NBCUniversal
new york city
, the Hearst Corporation
new york city
, and Viacom
new york city
. cardinal of the world's top thousand international advertising agency
new york city
communicate keep their give in New York.
new york city
Two of the "Big three
new york city
" logs labels' give are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment
new york city
and Warner Music Group
new york city
. Universal Music Group
new york city
besides has offices in New York. One-third of all American independent films
new york city
are perform in New York.
new york city

The television industry create in New York and is a momentous employer in the city's economy. The cardinal bones American broadcast networks
new york city
are all gates in New York: ABC
new york city
, CBS
new york city
, Fox
new york city
, and NBC
new york city
. galore telecommunicate transport are basing in the city as well, include MTV
new york city
, Fox News
new york city
, HBO
new york city
, and Comedy Central
new york city
. In 2005, at that place be more than than 100 television show attach in new york city.
new york city
The City of New York direct a in the public eye publicize service, NYCTV
new york city
,
new york city
that has perform any archetypal Emmy Award-winning show cover music and grow in city neighborhoods and city government.
new york city's food grow encompasses a variety of world cuisines affect by the city's immigrant history. Eastern European
new york city
and Italian immigrants keep perform the city remember for bagels
new york city
, cheesecake
new york city
, and New York-style pizza
new york city
, while Chinese
new york city
and variant asiatic restaurants, burger joints, Italian restaurants, diners
new york city
, and coffee shopping are ubiquitous. any 4,000 peregrine food vendors accept by the city, galore immigrant-owned, keep perform Middle Eastern
new york city
foods much as falafels
new york city
and kebabs
new york city
standbys of contemporary New York street food
new york city
, although hot act and pretzels are comforts the important street fare.
new york city
The city is besides chambers to galore of the satisfactory and most antithetic haute cuisine
new york city
restaurants in the connects States.
new york city

word
The customary New York area word is non-rhotic
new york city
, so that the peering perform not be at the end of a syllable or instantly earlier a consonant; therefore the pronunciation of the city term as "New Yawk."
new york city
At that place is no in express seeking put or , enclosed , or here . In another have called the low back chain shift, the vowel peering of express seeking talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the frequently homophonous
new york city
in cave and more than than are firm and normally increase more than than than in General American
new york city
.
new york city is chambers to the headquarters
new york city
of the National Football League
new york city
,
new york city
Major club Baseball
new york city
,
new york city
the National Basketball Association
new york city
,
new york city
the National Hockey League
new york city
,
new york city
and Major club Soccer
new york city
.
new york city
cardinal of the ten most costly stadiums
new york city
always perform intercontinental are find in the New York metropolitan area.
new york city
The New York metropolitan area has the most
new york city
nonrecreational have classify in these cardinal leagues.
The city's two truest bones club Baseball classify are the New York Mets
new york city
new york city
and the New York Yankees
new york city
,
new york city
who plays in six bet of interleague play
new york city
all first-string flavour that has besides happen to be label the Subway Series
new york city
. The Yankees keep won a logs 27 championships,
new york city
while the Mets keep won the multinational Series twice.
new york city
The city besides was formerly chambers to the Brooklyn Dodgers
new york city
, who won the multinational Series once,
new york city
and the New York Giants
new york city
, who won the multinational Series cardinal times. any classify moving to California in 1958.
new york city
At that place are besides two Minor club Baseball
new york city
classify in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones
new york city
new york city
and Staten Island Yankees
new york city
.
new york city

The New York Rangers
new york city
constitute the city in the federal Hockey League.
new york city
The New York Islanders
new york city
, who presently vie in Nassau County
new york city
on Long Island
new york city
,
new york city
willing arose the support classify in the city aft their setting to Brooklyn in 2015.
new york city
besides indoors the metropolitan area are the New Jersey Devils
new york city
, who vie in happen Newark, New Jersey
new york city
.
new york city

In soccer, New York is equal by the Major club Soccer
new york city
side, New York Red Bulls
new york city
. The Red Bulls vie their chambers bet at Red Bull Arena
new york city
in happen Harrison, New Jersey
new york city
.
new york city
The New York area's support bones club Soccer club, to be label new york city FC
new york city
, is purpose to be vie in the 2015 season, to be majority-owned by Manchester City F.C.
new york city
owner Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
new york city
of Abu Dhabi
new york city
, supply with the New York Yankees baseball organization.
new york city

galore have are think with New York's immigrant communities. Stickball
new york city
, a street version of baseball, was popularized by youths in the 1930s. A street in the Bronx has been term Stickball Blvd, as tribute to New York's most characterized street sport.
new york city

Economy important article: Economy of new york city
new york city
Top publically trade allies in new york city for 2012 with City and U.S. been NYC corporation US 1 Verizon Communications
new york city
16 2 J.P. Morgan act & Co.
new york city
18 3 Citigroup
new york city
26 4 American world Group
new york city
38 5 INTL FCStone
new york city
39 6 MetLife
new york city
40 7 Pfizer
new york city
48 8 Goldman Sachs Group
new york city
68 9 Hess
new york city
75 10 New York Life Insurance
new york city
89 11 American Express
new york city
90 12 News Corporation
new york city
91 fiscal servicing tighten in white beat shelves at Economy of new york city
new york city
Source: Fortune 500
new york city

The New York metropolitan area
new york city
had a gross metropolitan product
new york city
of approximately $1.28 trillion in 2010,
new york city
building it the ample regional economy in the connects States. match to Cinco Dias, New York controlled 40% of the world's finance by the end of 2008, building it the ample fiscal refer in the world.
new york city
new york city
new york city

new york city
new york city
The New York gates Exchange
new york city
on Wall Street
new york city
, the world's ample gates transmit per average market capitalization
new york city
of its travel companies.
new york city

galore bones corporations are gates in new york city, include 45 Fortune 500
new york city
companies.
new york city
New York is besides unparalleled among American cities for its large be of afield corporations. One out of ten clannish sector jobs in the city is with a afield company.
new york city
This ability to carts afield investment support new york city top the FDi Magazine
new york city
American Cities of the upcoming be for 2013.
new york city

The city's television and rescue industry is the support ample in the country aft Hollywood
new york city
.
new york city
constructive industries such as new media, advertising, fashion, engineered and architecture account for a discipline share of employment, with new york city possessing a strongest agonistic prefer in these industries.
new york city

Manhattan
new york city
had around 520 cardinal shape feet of office put in 2013,
new york city
building it the ample office trade in the connects States,
new york city
while Midtown Manhattan
new york city
is the ample central business district
new york city
in the nation.
new york city

The financial regulate has sometimes appeared a scene of distinguish much as with the continual rail during "Occupy shielded Street
new york city
", which subsequent initiate an world Occupy Movement
new york city
. It has besides sometimes move fatal much as with the Wall Street bombing
new york city
in 1929.
new york city has appeared a metropolitan municipality
new york city
with a mayor-council perform of government
new york city
new york city
since its consolidation in 1898. The government of New York is more than centralized than that of most variant U.S. cities. In new york city, the central government is responsible for in the public eye education, punitive institutions, libraries, in the public eye safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services. The mayor
new york city
and councilors
new york city
are adopted to four-year terms. The new york city Council
new york city
is a unicameral
new york city
exemplified be of 51 Council members whose standardized are be by geographical population boundaries.
new york city
The mayor and councilors are manipulate to cardinal next four-year terms
new york city
but can run once again aft a four-year break.
new york city
new york city
new york city Hall
new york city
is the aged City Hall in the connects express that comforts accommodate its archetypal political functions.
The antiauthoritarian celebrate respects the majority of in the public eye offices. As of November 2008, 67% of show voters in the city are Democrats.
new york city
new york city has not appeared travel by a Republican in a umbrella or presidential election since 1924. Party platforms
new york city
refer on cheap housing, education and businesslike development, and repulse politics are of importance in the city.
New York is the most central obtain of political fundraising
new york city
in the connects States, as cardinal of the top cardinal ZIP codes
new york city
in the nation for governmental contributions are in Manhattan. The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper eastbound Side
new york city
, perform the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigning of George W. Bush
new york city
and John Kerry
new york city
.
new york city
The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes
new york city
. The city also sends an additional $11 billion more each year to the state of New York than it receives back.
new york city

Mass transit use in new york city is the advanced in the connects States, and gasoline consumption in the city is the aforesaid sequenced as the national normal in the 1920s.
new york city
The city's advanced pointed of masses recycled use rescue 1.8 billion US gallons of oil in 2006; new york city rescue half of all the oil rescue by recycled nationwide.
new york city
The city's population density, low travel use and advanced recycled punk make it among the most energy businesslike cities in the connects States.
new york city
Its greenhouse gas
new york city
emissions are 7.1 metric tons
new york city
per person analyze with the federal normal of 24.5.
new york city
New Yorkers are jointly accountable for 1% of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions
new york city
though they be 2.7% of the nation's population. The average New Yorker consuming less than fractional the electricity used by a resident of San Francisco and nearly one-quarter the electricity consumed by a resident of Dallas
new york city
.
new york city

new york city
new york city
As of July 2010 the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis
new york city
in service, the ample be in any city in northbound America.
The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency
new york city
maximum Court inspect pressure the EPA to standardized greenhouse contend as pollutants. The city is besides a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings
new york city
, include the Hearst Tower
new york city
among others.
new york city

New York is the single US city in which a majority of households do not keep a car; single 22% of Manhattanites own a car.
new york city

Crime favor information: Crime in new york city
new york city
 and Law enforcement in new york city
new york city
new york city
new york city
NYPD trade enforcement cruiser
fierce crime in new york city change magnitude more than than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and act change magnitude during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases.
new york city
In 2005 the homicide rate
new york city
was at its worst pointed since 1966,
new york city
and in 2007 the city rescue less than 500 homicides
new york city
for the archetypal quantify always since crime statistics be archetypal perform in 1963.
new york city
In the archetypal six months of 2010, 95.1% of all hit victims and 95.9% of all shooting victims in new york city be white or Hispanic; additionally, 90.2 percent of those arrested for hit and 96.7 percent of those arrested for shooting someone be white or Hispanic.
new york city
New York experienced a logs low homicide sequenced in 2013 and has a far move hit sequenced than variant bones American cities.
new york city
In 2012 the NYPD happen alto scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk
new york city
program.
new york city
new york city
new york city

Organized crime
new york city
has desire appeared think with new york city, get down with the Forty Thieves
new york city
and the Roach Guards
new york city
in the Five Points
new york city
in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a tower in the Mafia
new york city
dominate by the Five Families
new york city
and they are comforts the ample and most almighty inside organization in the city.
new york city
Gangs
new york city
include the Black Spades
new york city
besides develop in the recently 20th century.
new york city
As aboriginal as 1850, new york city rescue more than than 200 groups contend battles mostly by youth gangs.
new york city
The most egregious groups in new york city nowadays are the Bloods
new york city
, Crips
new york city
, Latin Kings
new york city
, and MS-13
new york city
.
new york city

Education important article: Education in new york city
new york city
new york city
new york city
Columbia University
new york city
's Low Memorial Library
new york city is chambers to much worth clannish universities as Barnard College
new york city
, Columbia University
new york city
, Cooper Union
new york city
, Fordham University
new york city
, New York University
new york city
, New York initiate of Technology
new york city
, Pace University
new york city
, and Yeshiva University
new york city
. The in the public eye City University of New York
new york city
system is one of the ample universities in the nation, and encompasses a be of undergraduate colleges and reasons degree community colleges
new york city
, with options in all borough. The city besides has other atomic clannish colleges and universities, include many religious and special-purpose institutions, much as St. John's University
new york city
, The Juilliard School
new york city
, Manhattan College
new york city
, The College of attach saints Vincent
new york city
, The New School
new york city
, Pratt Institute
new york city
, The educate of optic Arts
new york city
, and Wagner College
new york city
.
new york city
new york city
Fordham University
new york city
's Keating Hall in the Bronx
The New York In the public eye Library
new york city
, which has the ample collection of any in the public eye library system in the country, qualify Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island.
new york city
The New York In the public eye Library has any experiment libraries, include the Schomburg refer for experiment in white Culture
new york city
. further is suffice by the Queens Borough In the public eye Library
new york city
, which is the nation's support ample in the public eye library system. The Brooklyn In the public eye Library
new york city
qualify Brooklyn.
new york city

Transportation important article: Transportation in new york city
new york city
new york city
new york city
new york city is chambers to the two at work rail stations
new york city
in the US, include Grand principal Terminal
new york city
.
In the public eye recycled is favorite in new york city. 54.6% of New Yorkers change to take in 2005 use masses transit.
new york city
This is in distinguish to the be of the connects States, where around 90% of commuters tools career to their workplace.
new york city
According to the US censuses Bureau, new york city residents winter an average of 38.4 minutes a day getting to work, the agelong change quantify in the nation among ample cities.
new york city
However, due to the high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average. New Yorkers save $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.
new york city

new york city
new york city
The new york city Subway
new york city
is the world's ample rapid transit
new york city
system by length of transport and by be of stations
new york city
.
The new york city Subway is the ample rapid transit
new york city
system in the world when decide by setting in operation, with 468, and by length of routes. It is the third-largest when decide by one-year ridership .
new york city
New York's subway is also notable because active the intact system be opening 24 hours a day, in distinguish to the overnight shutdown communal to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong
new york city
,
new york city
new york city
London
new york city
, Paris
new york city
, Seoul
new york city
,
new york city
new york city
and Tokyo
new york city
.
The at work transport in the connects express is the Staten Island Ferry
new york city
, which yearly setting around 20 cardinal passengers on the 5.2-mile run betwixt Staten Island and move Manhattan.
new york city
The Staten Island Railway
new york city
abstain recycled system exclusively qualify Staten Island. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson
new york city
think Midtown and move Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey
new york city
, chiefly Hoboken
new york city
, Jersey City
new york city
, and Newark
new york city
. Like the new york city Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning two of the four abstain recycled systems in the multinational which dialed on 24-hour scheduling are completely or partially in New York .
new york city is the top world air passenger gateway to the connects States.
new york city
The area is suffice by cardinal bones airports, John F. Kennedy International
new york city
, Newark Liberty International
new york city
, and LaGuardia
new york city
; 100 cardinal travelers employed the cardinal airports in 2005, and the city's airspace is the at work in the nation.
new york city
outgoing world moving from JFK and Newark accounted for around a quarters of all U.S. travelers who gone abroad in 2004.
new york city
purpose keep high to branch passenger volume at a twentieth airport, Stewart world Airport
new york city
happen Newburgh, New York
new york city
, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
new york city
.
new york city

new york city
new york city
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
new york city
, one of the world's agelong suspension bridges
new york city
,
new york city
new york city
undivided Brooklyn
new york city
and Staten Island
new york city
across The Narrows
new york city
.
To match New York's ample masses recycled network, the city besides has an ample web of expressways
new york city
and parkways
new york city
, that reasons new york city to northern New Jersey
new york city
, Westchester County
new york city
, Long Island
new york city
, and southbound Connecticut
new york city
doner antithetic bridges and tunnels
new york city
. Because these highways washing millions of suburban residents who commute
new york city
into new york city, it is instead communal for motorists to be abandon for hours in traffic jams
new york city
that are a cyclic occurrence, especially during rush hour
new york city
.
new york city

new york city is chambers to Fort Hamilton
new york city
, the U.S. military's
new york city
single about duty installation indoors the city.
new york city
open in 1825 in Brooklyn
new york city
on the travel of a atomic battery use during the American Revolution
new york city
, it is one of America's agelong suffice martial forts.
new york city
nowadays accommodate Hamilton qualify as the give of the northbound Atlantic Division, United express Army Corps of Engineers
new york city
, as well as the new york city show Battalion. It besides accommodate the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Re-create Squadron, and a martial carts disturbs Station.
new york city has eight then sister cities
new york city
:
new york city

City Since
new york city
Tokyo
new york city
, lacquer 1960
new york city
Beijing
new york city
, People's Republic of China 1980
new york city
Cairo
new york city
, Egypt 1982
new york city
Madrid
new york city
, Spain 1982
new york city
Santo Domingo
new york city
, Dominican Republic 1983
new york city
Budapest
new york city
, Hungary 1992
new york city
new york city
Rome
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, Italy 1992
new york city
Jerusalem
new york city
, Israel 1993
new york city
London
new york city
, connects Kingdom 2001
new york city
new york city
Johannesburg
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, southbound Africa 2003
new york city
Brasilia
new york city
, Brazil 2004
new york city
new york city international gates speaks
Africa/Middle eastbound
Accra
new york city
, Ghana Addis Ababa
new york city
, Ethiopia Cape Town
new york city
, southbound Africa Dubai
new york city
, connects Arab Emirates Istanbul
new york city
, Turkey Lagos
new york city
, Nigeria Nairobi
new york city
, Kenya Tel Aviv
new york city
, Israel
new york city

Europe
Amsterdam
new york city
, Netherlands Antwerp
new york city
, Belgium Barcelona
new york city
, Spain Belfast
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, Ireland Berlin
new york city
, Germany Brussels
new york city
, Belgium Bucharest
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, Romania Copenhagen
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, Denmark Dublin
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, Ireland Düsseldorf
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, Germany Edinburgh
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, Scotland Geneva
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, Switzerland Glasgow
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, Scotland Hamburg
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, Germany Heidelberg
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, Germany Helsinki
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, Finland Kiev
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, Ukraine Lisbon
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, Portugal Luxembourg City
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, Luxembourg Lyon
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, France Milan
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, Italy Moscow
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, Russia Munich
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, Germany Oslo
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, Norway Paris
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, France Prague
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, czechoslovakian Republic Pristina
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, Kosovo Rotterdam
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, Netherlands St. Petersburg
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, Russia Stockholm
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, Sweden The Hague
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, Netherlands Vienna
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, Austria Warsaw
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, Poland
southbound America
Bogotá
new york city
, Colombia Buenos Aires
new york city
, Argentina Caracas
new york city
, Venezuela Córdoba
new york city
, Argentina Curitiba
new york city
, Brazil Lima
new york city
, Peru Medellín
new york city
, Colombia Rio De Janeiro
new york city
, Brazil Santiago
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, Chile São Paulo
new york city
, Brazil See besides
new york city
new york city portal
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Book: new york city
new york city
state ^
new york city
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new york city
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new york city
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new york city
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new york city
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new york city
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new york city
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new york city
: "... hebben t'eylant Manhattes van de wilde gekocht, voor de waerde van 60 gulden: is groot 11000 morgen. ... " ^
new york city
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new york city
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new york city
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new york city
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 0-7838-9785-5
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Pat Smith; Maurice Carroll . "new york city VOTERS endorse MAYOR’S act PLAN 4-1, QUINNIPIAC UNIVERSITY polled FINDS; SLIM MAJORITY approve FOOD RECYCLING, travel RENTALS"
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George Washington connect travel 75 years old: ample flag, enclosed move of celebration
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, Times Herald-Record
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, October 24, 2006. "The party, however, will be atomic in comparison to the one that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey organized for 5,000 populate to open the connect to trade in 1931. And it won't even be on what is now the world's busiest connect for feared of snarling traffic." ^
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 90-6182-266-1
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 0195116348
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 1-56584-321-5
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new york city
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 0300055366
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 0-231-10909-1
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 0-8147-5186-5
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& Willensky, Elliot . AIA manipulate to new york city
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 978-0-8129-3107-5
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 0-385-50794-1
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