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Thomas edison

March 22nd, 2014
Thomas Alva Edison was an American
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inventor
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and businessman
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. He create galore devices that greatly affect life approximately the world, include the phonograph
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, the motion imagine camera
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, and a long-lasting, applicative electrical light bulb
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. label "The magic of Menlo Park",
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he was one of the archetypal inventors
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to use the principles of mass production
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and large-scale teamwork to the affect of invention, and because of that, he is frequently credit with the creation of the archetypal industrial research laboratory
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.
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His high take in these handle was an outgrowth of his aboriginal automobiles as a telegraph
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operator. Edison create a system of electric-power generation and distribution
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to homes, businesses, and factories – a captious development in the contemporary improved world. His archetypal power station
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was on garner Street in Manhattan
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, New York.
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aboriginal life
In school, the youthful Edison's except frequently wandered, and his teacher, the spiritual Engle, was hear designate him "addled
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". This end Edison's cardinal months of authoritative schooling. Edison recalled later, "My mother was the building of me. She was so true, so convinced of me; and I entangle I had something to live for, someone I essential not disappoint." His mother inform him at home.
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such of his education happen from interpret R.G. Parker's School of earthy Philosophy
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and The Cooper Union
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.
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Edison's family moving to Port Huron, Michigan
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, aft the railroads avoid Milan in 1854 and business declined;
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his life there was bittersweet. Edison sold sugar and newspapers on trains running from Port Huron to Detroit, and sold vegetables to button his income. He also studied brushed analysis, and conducted chemic experiments on the train until an accident prohibited further take of the kind.
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Edison change state a phone operator after he rescue three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from be touches by a rampant train. Jimmie's father, station agent
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J.U. MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, Michigan
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, was so appreciative that he trained Edison as a phone operator. Edison's archetypal telegraphy job forth from Port Huron was at Stratford Junction, Ontario
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, on the Grand Trunk Railway
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.
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One of his teach during those aboriginal years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor designate Franklin Leonard Pope
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, who allowed the starved youth to bachelor and take in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jersey
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, home. any of Edison's aboriginal inventions be think to telegraphy, including a gates ticker. His archetypal procure was for the electrical adopted recorder, ,
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which was provide on June 1, 1869.
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Marriages and children
Mary Edison change state at age 29 on aristocratic 9, 1884, of chartless causes: perhaps from a brain tumor
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or a morphine overdose
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. fill frequently prescribed morphine to women in those years to treat a variety of causes, and researchers relied that some of her symptoms look as if they were associated with morphine poisoning.
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Mina Edison in 1906
Mina outlive thomas edison, change state on aristocratic 24, 1947.
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Get down his automobiles
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rescue of Edison with his phonograph , work in Mathew Brady
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's Washington, DC studio in April 1878. Mary Had a smallest Lamb
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Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript changed or perform not keep any support player. You can download the clip
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or download a player
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to vie the drill in your browser. thomas edison execute "Mary Had a smallest Lamb" Problems plays this file? See media help
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.
His archetypal phonograph rescue on tinfoil
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approximately a grooves cylinder. Despite its manipulate sound quality
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and that the recordings could be played single a few times, the phonograph perform Edison a celebrity. Joseph Henry, president of the National Academy of Sciences and one of the most renowned electrical scientists in the US, set forth Edison as "the most adroit inventor in this country . . . or in any other".
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In April 1878, Edison travelled to Washington to show the phonograph earlier the federal Academy of Sciences, Congressmen, Senators and US President Hayes.
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The Washington Post
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set forth Edison as a "genius
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" and his presentation as "a scene . . . that willing bachelor in history".
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Although Edison obtaining a procure for the phonograph in 1878,
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he did smallest to discipline it until Alexander Graham Bell
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, Chichester Bell
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, and Charles Tainter
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perform a phonograph-like device in the 1880s that employed wax-coated arranged cylinders.
Menlo put
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Edison's Menlo put Laboratory, supposed at Greenfield Village at Henry traverse Museum
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in Dearborn, Michigan.
The multiple telegraph was Edison's first big financial success, and Menlo Park became the first institution set up with the special slate of perform invariable scientific innovation and improvement. Edison was legally attributed with most of the inventions produced there, though many employees carried out experiment and development under his direction. His staff was generally express to carry out his directions in conducting research, and he drove them hard to produce results.
Nearly all of Edison's procure be punk patents, which be protected for a 17-year period and include inventions or affect that are electrical, mechanical, or chemic in nature. around a eight be design patents
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, which wall an decorative engineered for up to a 14-year period. As in most patents, the inventions he set forth be improvements finished prior art
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. The phonograph patent, in contrast, was recent as set forth the archetypal device to logs and simulated sounds.
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finished his desk, Edison show a post with Sir Joshua Reynolds
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' remember quotation: "There is no opportunistic to which a man willing not dedicated to avoids the actual repulse of thinking."
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This slogan was reputedly posts at any variant locations end-to-end the facility.
In 1877–78, Edison create by mental act and create the carbon microphone
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employed in all telecommunicate along with the attach receiver until the 1980s. aft lengthen procure litigation, in 1892 a nationalist act ruled that Edison and not Emile Berliner
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was the inventor of the carbon microphone. The carbon microphone was besides employed in covenant publicize and in the public eye communicate work through the 1920s.
electrical lighten important article: History of the lighten bulb
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thomas edison's archetypal boffo lighten bulb model, employed in in the public eye demonstration at Menlo Park, December 1879
aft galore experiments, archetypal with carbon
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filaments in the aboriginal 1880s and sometime with platinum
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and variant metals, in the end Edison travel to a carbon filament.
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The archetypal boffo examine was on October 22, 1879;
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it decide 13.5 hours.
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Edison act to change this engineered and by November 4, 1879, show for U.S. procure 223,898 for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or peel helical and joined to platina contact wires".
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In 1878, Edison perform the Edison electrical lighten Company
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in New York City with any financiers, include J. P. Morgan
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and the members of the Vanderbilt family
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. Edison made the first in the public eye demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, 1879, in Menlo Park. It was during this time that he said: "We will forms electricity so affordable that only the plush will burn candles."
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The Oregon railroads and Navigation Company
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's new steamship, the Columbia
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, was the archetypal commercialized application for Edison's lighten lighten bulb in 1880.
Lewis Latimer
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joined the Edison Electric lighten Company in 1884. Latimer had conventional a patent in January 1881 for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons", an shifting method for the production of carbon filaments for lightbulbs. Latimer work as an engineer, a draftsman and an adept witness in patent litigation on electric lights.
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On October 8, 1883, the US procure office
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ruled that Edison's patent was based on the work of William Sawyer and was therefore invalid. Litigation continued for nearly six years, until October 6, 1889, when a decide ruled that Edison's electric-light improvement demand for "a filament of carbon of advanced resistance" was valid.
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To avoid a accomplishable act battle with Joseph Swan, whose British procure had appeared award a year earlier Edison's, he and Swan formed a cooperative consort label Ediswan
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to perform and trade the invention in Britain.
Edison copyrights a system for electricity distribution
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in 1880, which was necessary to profit on the invention of the electrical lamp. On December 17, 1880, Edison initiative the Edison Lighten Company
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. The consort open the archetypal investor-owned electrical punk in 1882 on Pearl Street Station
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, New York City. It was on September 4, 1882, that Edison change by reversal on his Pearl Street
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forms station's electric give distribution system, which give 110 volts direct current
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to 59 customers in move Manhattan
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.
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Nikola Tesla
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work for Edison for two years at the transcontinental Edison consort in France be in 1882,
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and different year at the Edison shape work in New York City
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end in a disagreement finished pay
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.
War of currents important article: War of Currents
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unrestrained show of electrical lighten rapidly change state a have of in the public eye events, as in this picture from the 1897 Tennessee centenary Exposition
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.
In 1887, at that place were 121 Edison power stations in the United States disclose DC electricity to customers. When the limitations of DC were discussed by the public, Edison launched a propaganda campaign to convince populate that AC was far too dangerous to use. The problem with DC was that the power plants could economically tell DC electricity only to customers within about one and a half miles from the forms station, so that it was fit only for central business districts. When George Westinghouse promising using high-voltage
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AC instead, as it could travel electricity hundreds of miles with peripheral loss of power, Edison battles a "War of Currents
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" to forestall AC from be adopted.
AC replaced DC in most elaborate of generation and power distribution, enormously extending the range and dress the efficiency of power distribution. Though widespread use of DC eventually losing further for distribution, it existing today chiefly in long-distance high-voltage operating current
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transmission systems. Low-voltage DC distribution act to be employed in high-density downtown areas for galore years but was eventually replaced by AC low-voltage speaks distribution in galore of them.
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Edison is credit with designed and perform the archetypal commercially approachable fluoroscope
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, a shape that use X-rays
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to lead radiographs
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. Until Edison detects that calcium tungstate
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fluoroscopy screened perform bright visualize than the barium platinocyanide
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screened originally employed by Wilhelm Röntgen
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, the technology was competent of perform single dead zonk out images.
The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge obtain from years of working as a telegraph operator, he larn the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his aboriginal fortune with the stock ticker
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, the archetypal electricity-based publicize system. Edison copyrights the peering recording and reproducing phonograph in 1878. Edison was besides provide a procure for the motion imagine camera or "Kinetograph". He did the electromechanical design, while his employee W.K.L. Dickson
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, a photographer, work on the photographic and optical development. such of the credited for the invention be to Dickson.
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In 1891, thomas edison perform a Kinetoscope
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, or peep-hole viewer. This device was installing in penny arcades, where populate could watch short, simplest films. The kinetograph and kinetoscope be any first publicly exhibited May 20, 1891.
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formally the kinetoscope entering Europe when the plush American Businessman Irving T. Bush
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bought from the transcontinental Commerce consort of Frank Z. Maguire and Joseph D. Baucus a dozen machines. Bush placed from October 17, 1894, the archetypal kinetoscopes in London. At the same time the French company Kinétoscope Edison Michel et Alexis Werner bought these machines for the market in France. In the last cardinal months of 1894, The transcontinental Commerce consort sold hundreds of kinetoscopes in Europe . In Germany and in Austria-Hungary
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the kinetoscope was announcing by the Deutsche-österreichische-Edison-Kinetoscop Gesellschaft, initiative by the Ludwig Stollwerck
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of the Schokoladen-Süsswarenfabrik Stollwerck & Co of Cologne.
On May 14, 1895, the Edison's Kinétoscope Belge was initiative in Brussels. The businessman Ladislas-Victor Lewitzki, extant in London but about in Belgium and France, took the initiative in be this business. He had covenant with Leon Gaumont
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and the American Mutoscope and Biograph
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Co. In 1898 he besides change state a shareholder of the Biograph and Mutoscope consort for France.
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variant exhibitors likewise routinely types and exhibit all other's films.
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To repaired wall the patented on his films, Edison locks outputs of them on desire strips of photographic paper
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with the U.S. patented office
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. galore of these cover outputs survive agelong and in repaired inform than the current films of that era.
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In 1908, Edison been the Motion imagine procure Company
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, which was a added of cardinal bones rescue studios . thomas edison was the archetypal unearned fellow of the Acoustical Society of America
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, which was initiative in 1929.
westbound golden and accommodate Myers
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Thomas A. Edison Industries Exhibit, capital Battery section, 1915
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Henry Ford
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, thomas edison, and Harvey Firestone
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, respectively. Ft. Myers
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, Florida, February 11, 1929
Henry Ford
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, the automobile magnate, concomitant lived a few hundred feet forth from Edison at his invested retreat in Fort Myers, Florida. Edison flat contributed technology to the automobile. They be friends until Edison's death.
Edison was about in business correctly up to the end. conscionable months earlier his death, the Lackawanna Railroad
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be suburban electrical inform function from Hoboken
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to Montclair
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, Dover
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, and Gladstone
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in New Jersey. electric transmission for this service was by means of an overhead catenary system using direct current, which Edison had championed. Despite his weakly condition, Edison was at the throttle of the archetypal electric MU inform to depart Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken in September 1930, driving the inform the archetypal mile doner Hoboken yard on its way to South Orange
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.
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Edison was express to keep appeared affect by a favorite fad diet
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in his decide few years; "the single fluid he consuming was a pint of draw all cardinal hours".
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He is reported to keep believed this diet would restore his health. However, this tale is doubtful. In 1930, the year earlier Edison died, Mina express in an converse around him, "correct eating is one of his superior hobbies." She also express that during one of his periodic "great scientific adventures", Edison would be up at 7:00, keep consuming at 8:00, and be rarely home for lunch or dinner, implying that he act to keep all three.
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thomas edison change state of complications of diabetes on October 18, 1931, in his home, "Glenmont" in Llewellyn Park
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in West Orange, New Jersey
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, which he had obtaining in 1886 as a club change for Mina. He is obscured drink the home.
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Mina change state in 1947.
reasons on politics, religion and metaphysics
Nature is what we know. We do not realize the gods of religions. And nature is not kind, or merciful, or loving. If God made me — the fabled God of the cardinal qualities of which I spoke: mercy, kindness, love — He also made the fish I floor and eat. And where do His mercy, kindness, and love for that fish come in? No; nature made us — nature did it all — not the gods of the religions.
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You keep misunderstood the whole article, because you jumped to the conclusion that it maintain the existence of God. There is no such denial, what you call God I call Nature, the maximum intelligence that rules matter. All the article states is that it is doubtful in my opinion if our intelligence or soul or whatever one may call it lives hereinafter as an entity or disperses back once again from whence it came, scattered amongst the cells of which we are made.
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Nonviolence was key to Edison's chaste views, and when asked to washing as a naval consultant for multinational War I, he specified he would work single on defensive weapons and later noted, "I am proud of the fact that I never invented weapons to kill." Edison's philosophy of nonviolence increase to animals as well, about which he stated: "Nonviolence leads to the highest ethics, which is the goal of all evolution. Until we stop harming all variant living beings, we are still savages."
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However, he is besides infamous for have kill a be of dogs in 1888, any by operating and improved current, in an attempt to opposed that the former was safer than the latter .
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In 1920, Edison set off a media sensation when he express B. C. Forbes
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of American Magazine
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that he was work on a "spirit phone" to allowance communication with the dead, a story which variant newspapers and magazines repeated.
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Edison later foreswear the idea, word the New York Times in 1926 that "I actually had nothing to tell him, but I hate to disappoint him so I thought up this story around communicate with spirits, but it was all a joke."
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reasons on money
In the aforesaid article, he expounded upon the absurdity of a monetary system in which the taxpayer of the United States, in requires of a loan, be compelled to pay in travel perhaps double the principal, or even greater sums, due to interest. His basic aim was that if the Government can produce debt-based money, it could as as well produce money that was a credited to the taxpayer.
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The President
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of the Third cut Republic
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, Jules Grévy
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, on the recommendation of his Minister of afield Affairs
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Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire
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and with the presentations of the Minister of suffixed and Telegraphs
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Louis Cochery
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, labeled Edison with the distinction
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of an 'Officer of the galore of Honour
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' by enacted on November 10, 1881;
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He besides designate a Chevalier in 1879, and a Commander in 1889.
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The Philadelphia City Council
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designate Edison the recipient of the John Scott Medal
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in 1889.
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He was designate an laureate consult create at the Louisiana get Exposition
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World's fair
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in 1904.
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In 1915, Edison was award Franklin Medal
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of The Franklin Institute
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for discoveries improved to the foundation of industries and the well-being of the hominid race.
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In 1923, The American initiate of electric Engineers
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perform the Edison Medal and he was its archetypal recipient.
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On May 29, 1928, Edison conventional the Congressional metallic Medal
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.
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Edison was been thirty-fifth on Michael H. Hart's
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1978 schedule The 100: A be of the Most authoritative Persons in History
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, a inventory of the most authoritative rating in history.
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Life
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magazine , in a circumstantial multiply issue in 1997, move Edison first in the inventory of the "100 Most Important populate in the decide 1000 Years", note that the light bulb
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he improved "lit up the world". In the 2005 television series The superior American
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, he was adopted by viewers as the fifteenth-greatest.
In 2010, Edison was accept with a Technical Grammy Award
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.
any travel keep appeared designate aft Edison, most notably the town of Edison, New Jersey
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. thomas edison note College
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, a nationally characterized college for develop learners, is in Trenton, New Jersey
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. Two community colleges are designate for him: Edison note College
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in accommodate Myers, Florida, and Edison Community College in Piqua, Ohio
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.
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There are numerous high schools named after Edison " title="Edison High School " class="mw-redirect">Edison advanced School
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) and variant educate include Thomas A. Edison put School
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.
Lake Thomas A Edison
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in California
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was designate aft Edison to brands the 75th anniversary of the incandescent lighten bulb
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.
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cardinal connect approximately the United States
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keep appeared designate in Edison's honor: the Edison connect in New Jersey
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,
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the Edison connect in Florida
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,
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and the Edison connect in Ohio
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.
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In westbound Orange, New Jersey, the 13.5 acre Glenmont estate is maintain and request by the National put Service
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as the Edison federal then Site
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.
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The Thomas Alva Edison Memorial soaring and Museum
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is in the town of Edison, New Jersey.
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In Beaumont, Texas
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, at that place is an Edison Museum
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, though Edison ne'er visit there.
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The Port Huron Museum
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, in Port Huron, Michigan
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, restoring the archetypal depot that thomas edison work out of as a youthful newsbutcher. The depot has appeared designate the thomas edison Depot Museum
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.
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The town has galore Edison historical landmarks, include the grave of Edison's parents, and a monument on the St. Clair River
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. Edison's manipulate can be perceive end-to-end this city of 32,000.
The Edison Medal
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was perform on February 11, 1904, by a groups of Edison's friends and associates. cardinal years concomitant the American initiate of electric Engineers
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, concomitant IEEE
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, entering into an agreement with the group to show the medal as its advanced award. The archetypal medal was show in 1909 to Elihu Thomson
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. It is the aged awards in the area of electrical and electronics engineering
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, and is show yearly "for a automobiles of meritorious achievement in electric science, electric design or the electric arts."
The American Society of autoloading Engineers
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admit the Thomas A. Edison procure awards to idiosyncratic procure since 2000.
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variant items designate aft Edison
thomas edison has been in popular culture
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as a character in novels, films, comics and video games. His prolific create by mental act support forms him an icon and he has made appearances in favorite grow during his lifetime drink to the present day. His is also portrayed in favorite grow as an adversary of Nikola Tesla
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.
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